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4-phenylbutyric Acid sodium salt  4-苯基丁酸鈉鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_phenylbutyrate

Sodium phenylbutyrate is a salt of an aromatic fatty acid, 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or 4-phenylbutyric acid.[1] The compound is used to treat urea cycle disorders, because its metabolites offer an alternative pathway to the urea cycle to allow excretion of excess nitrogen.[2][3] It is an orphan drug, marketed by Ucyclyd Pharma under the trade name Buphenyl, by Swedish Orphan International (Sweden) as Ammonaps, and by Fyrlklövern Scandinavia as triButyrate.

Sodium phenylbutyrate is also a histone deacetylase inhibitor and chemical chaperone, leading respectively to research into its use as an anti-cancer agent and in protein misfolding diseases such as cystic fibrosis.[1] abc


Acyclovir 阿昔洛韋
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aciclovir

Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication.[3] It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles. Other uses include prevention of cytomegalovirus infections following transplant and infections due to Epstein-Barr virus. It is available by mouth and intravenously.[4]

Common side effects include nausea and diarrhea. Potentially serious side effects include kidney problems and low platelets. Greater care is recommended in those with poor liver or kidney function.[4] It is generally considered safe for use inpregnancy with no harm having been observed.[4][5] It appears to be safe during breastfeeding.[6][7] Aciclovir is a nucleic acid analogue made from guanosine. It works by decreasing the production of the virus's DNA.[4]

The discovery of aciclovir was announced in 1977.[8] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[9] It is available as a generic medication and is marketed under many brand names worldwide.[1] The wholesale cost as of 2014 to 2016 was between US$0.03 and US$0.12 for a typical dose by mouth.[10][11] The cost of a typical course of treatment in the United States is less than US$25.[6]

Alfacalcidol 阿法骨化醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfacalcidol

Alfacalcidol (or 1-hydroxycholecalciferol) is an analogue of vitamin D used for supplementation in humans and as a poultry feed additive.

Alfacalcidol has a weaker impact on calcium metabolism[1] and parathyroid hormone levels[2] than calcitriol, however alfacalcidol has significant effects on the immune system, including regulatory T cells.[3] It is considered to be a more useful form of vitamin D supplementation, mostly due to much longer half-life and lower kidney load.[4] It is the most commonly prescribed vitamin D metabolite for patients with end stage renal disease, given that impaired renal function alters the ability to carry out the second hydroxylation step required for the formation of the physiologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alfacalcidol is an active vitamin D3 metabolite, and therefore does not require the secondhydroxylation step in the kidney.[5]

Used as a poultry feed additive, it prevents tibial dyschondroplasia and increases phytate bioavailability.[6][original research?]

Alfuzosin Hydrochloride 阿福唑嗪
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfuzosin

Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class. As an antagonist of the α1 adrenergic receptor, it works by relaxing the muscles in the prostate and bladder neck, making it easier to urinate. It is thus used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Alfuzosin is marketed in the United States by Sanofi Aventis under the brand name Uroxatral and elsewhere under the tradenames Xat, Xatral, Prostetrol and Alfural. Alfuzosin was approved by the U.S. FDA for treatment of BPH in June 2003.

Allopurinol 別嘌呤醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allopurinol

Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim and generics, is a medication used primarily to treat excess uric acid in the blood and its complications, including chronic gout.[1] It is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and is administered orally.

It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[2]

Alprazolam 阿普唑侖
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alprazolam

Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax (and sometimes known as xans or zans for short) is a short-actinganxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class. It is commonly used for the treatment of panic disorder, and anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or social anxiety disorder (SAD).[4][5] It was the 12th most prescribed medicine in the USA in 2010.[6] Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, binds to specific sites on the GABAA receptor. It possessesanxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and amnestic properties.[7] Alprazolam is available fororal administration in compressed tablet (CT) and extended-release capsule (XR) formulations.

Alprostadil 前列地爾
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostaglandin_E1

Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a prostaglandin.

The synthetic variant is known pharmaceutically as alprostadil.[1] It is a drug used in the continuous treatment of erectile dysfunction[2] and has vasodilatory properties. Misoprostol is another synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used to prevent gastric ulcers when taken on a continuous basis, to treat missed miscarriage, to induce labor, and to induce abortion.

Anastrozole 阿那曲唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastrozole

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women andgynecomastia in men. They may also be used off-label to reduce increase of estrogen conversion during cycle with external testosterone. They may also be used for chemoprevention in high risk women.

Aromatase is the enzyme that synthesizes estrogen. As breast and ovarian cancers require estrogen to grow, AIs are taken to either block the production of estrogen or block the action of estrogen on receptors.

Argatroban
阿加曲班
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argatroban

Argatroban is an anticoagulant that is a small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor.[1] In 2000, argatroban was licensed by theFood and Drug Administration (FDA) for prophylaxis or treatment of thrombosis in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In 2002, it was approved for use during percutaneous coronary interventions in patients who have HIT or are at risk for developing it. In 2012, it was approved by the MHRA in the UK for anticoagulation in patients with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Type II (HIT) who require parenteral antithrombotic therapy.[2]

Argatroban is given intravenously and drug plasma concentrations reach steady state in 1–3 hours.[3] Argatroban is metabolized in the liver and has a half-life of about 50 minutes. It is monitored by PTT. Because of its hepatic metabolism, it may be used in patients with renal dysfunction. (This is in contrast to lepirudin, a direct thrombin inhibitor that is primarily renally cleared).

Articaine Hydrochloride 鹽酸阿尼卡因
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articaine


Articaine is a dental amide-type local anesthetic. It is the most widely used local anesthetic in a number of European countries[2] and is available in many countries around.

Atenolol 阿替洛爾
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atenolol
 

Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. Introduced in 1976, atenolol was developed as a replacement for propranolol in the treatment of hypertension. It works by slowing down the heart and reducing its workload. Unlike propranolol, atenolol does not readily pass through the blood–brain barrier, thus decreasing the incidence of central nervous system side effects.[1]

Atenolol is one of the most widely used β-blockers in the United Kingdom and was once the first-line treatment for hypertension.[citation needed] However, recent studies indicate that atenolol may not reduce morbidity or mortality when used to treat hypertension, and may even increase mortality in some subgroups.[2] In addition, the role for β-blockers in general in hypertension was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom, and later in the United States, as they are less appropriate than newer drugs, particularly in the elderly.[citation needed]

Atomoxetine HCl  阿托莫西汀
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomoxetine

Azacitidine 阿扎胞苷
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azacitidine

Azacitidine (INN; trade name Vidaza) is a chemical analog of cytidine, a nucleoside in DNA and RNA. Azacitidine and its deoxy derivative, decitabine (also known as 5-aza-2lso known as 5-aza-2 Balsalazide Disodium Dihydrate 巴柳氮 二鈉二水合物https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balsalazide
 

Balsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is sold under the brand names Giazo, Colazal in the US and Colazide in the UK. It is also sold in generic form in the US by several generic manufacturers.neric manufacturers.

Benazepril HCl 貝那普利
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benazepril

Benazepril, brand name Lotensin (Novartis), is an ACE inhibitor used primarily in treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and heart attacks, and also in preventing the renal and retinal complications of diabetes.cations of diabetes.

ACE inhibitors relax blood vessels, and decrease blood volume, which lowers blood pressure and decreases oxygen demand from the heart. They inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, which is part of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.

Benzonatate 苯甲酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzonatate

Benzonatate is a non-narcotic oral cough suppressant, or antitussive, with effects that last from 6 to 8 hours. Since it is not an opioid, benzonatate is not as prone to abuse like some other cough medications such as codeine. Benzonatate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) in 1958.[1]

Bepotastine Besilate 苯磺酸贝他斯汀
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bepotastine

Bepotastine (Talion, Bepreve) is a 2nd generation antihistamine.[1] It was approved in Japan for use in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria/pruritus in July 2000 and January 2002, respectively. It is currently marketed in the United States under the brand-name Bepreve, by ISTA Pharmaceuticals.

Bimatoprost 比馬前列素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bimatoprost

Bimatoprost (marketed in the US, Canada and Europe by Allergan, under the trade name Lumigan) is a prostaglandin analog used topically (as eye drops) to control the progression of glaucoma and in the management of ocular hypertension. It reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes.[1] In December 2008, the indication to lengthen eyelasheswas approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the cosmetic formulation of bimatoprost is sold as Latisse /ləˈtiːs/.[2]

Bisoprolol Fumarate 比索洛爾 富馬酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisoprolol

Bisoprolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta-blockers, a class of medicines used primarily incardiovascular diseases. More specifically, it is a selective type β1 adrenergic receptor blocker. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an application by Duramed Pharmaceutical for Zebeta Oral Tablets (bisoprolol fumarate) as a new molecular entity on July 31, 1992.[4] It has since been approved by the FDA for manufacture by Teva, Mylan, Sandoz, Aurobino, and Unichem.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6]

Bivalirudin 比伐盧定
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bivalirudin


Bivalirudin (Angiomax or Angiox, manufactured by The Medicines Company) is a specific and reversible direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI).[1]

Chemically, it is a synthetic congener of the naturally occurring drug hirudin (found in the saliva of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis).Hirudo medicinalis).

Bortezomib 硼替佐米
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bortezomib
 

Bortezomib (BAN, INN and USAN. Originally codenamed PS-341; marketed as Velcade byMillennium Pharmaceuticals; Neomib by Getwell and Bortecad by Cadila Healthcare) is the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be tested in humans. Proteasomes are cellular complexes that break down proteins. In some cancers, the proteins that normally kill cancer cells are broken down too quickly. Bortezomib interrupts this process and lets those proteins kill the cancer cells. It is approved in the U.S. for treating relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma.[1][2] In multiple myeloma, complete clinical responses have been obtained in patients with otherwise refractory or rapidly advancing disease.

Brinzolamide 布林唑胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brinzolamide

Brinzolamide (trade names Azopt, Alcon Laboratories, Befardin,[1] Fardi Medicals,[2] ) is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to lower intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Chemistry[edit] Brinzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (specifically, carbonic anhydrase II). Carbonic anhydrase is found primarily in erythrocytes (but also in other tissues including the eye). It exists as a number of isoenzymes, the most active of which is carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II). Indications[edit] Use for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and raised intraocular pressure due to excess aqueous humor production.

Calcipotriol 卡泊三醇
Calcipotriol Monohydrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcipotriol

Calcipotriol (INN) or calcipotriene (USAN) is a synthetic derivative of calcitriol, a form of vitamin D. It is used in the treatment of psoriasis, marketed under the trade name "Dovonex" in the United States, "Daivonex" outside of North America, and "Psorcutan" in Germany. This medication is safe for long-term application in psoriatic skin conditions.

Calcitriol 骨化三醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcitriol
 

Calcitriol (INN), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D with three hydroxyl groups (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D),[6] It was first identified by Michael F. Holick in work published in 1971.[7] Calcitriol increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, and possibly increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone.[8]

Calcium Acetate 醋酸鈣
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_acetate

Calcium acetate is a chemical compound which is a calcium salt of acetic acid. It has the formula Ca(C2H3O2)2. Its standard name is calcium acetate, while calcium ethanoate is the systematic name. An older name is acetate of lime. The anhydrous form is very hygroscopic; therefore the monohydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2•H2O) is the common form. is the common form.

    In kidney disease, blood levels of phosphate may rise (called hyperphosphatemia) leading to bone problems. Calcium acetate binds phosphate in the diet to lower blood phosphate levels.[citation needed]

Capsaicin 辣椒素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsaicin#Research_and_pharmaceutical_use

Capsaicin is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays (Sinol-M), and dermal patches to relieve pain, typically in concentrations between 0.025% and 0.1%.[38] It may be applied in cream form for the temporary relief of minor aches and pains of muscles and joints associated with arthritis, backache, strains and sprains, often in compounds with other rubefacients.[38]

It is also used to reduce the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy such as post-herpetic neuralgia caused by shingles.[38] Capsaicin transdermal patch (Qutenza) for the management of this particular therapeutic indication (pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia) was approved as a therapeutic by the U.S. FDA,[39] but a subsequent application for Qutenza to be used as an analgesic in HIV neuralgia was refused.[40]gia was refused.[40]

Although capsaicin creams have been used to treat psoriasis for reduction of itching,[38][41][42] a review of six clinical trials involving topical capsaicin for treatment of pruritus concluded there was insufficient evidence of effect.[43]

Carbarsone 對脲苯基胂酸
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbarsone
 

Carbarsone is an organoarsenic compound used as an antiprotozoal drug for treatment of amebiasisand other infections.[1][2][3] It was available for amebiasis in the United States as late as 1991. Thereafter, it remained available as a turkey feed additive for increasing weight gain and controllingblackhead disease.[4][5]khead disease.[4][5]


Caspofungin Acetate
乙酸卡泊芬淨
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspofungin

Caspofungin (INN)[1] (brand name Cancidas worldwide) is a lipopeptide antifungal drug fromMerck & Co., Inc. discovered by James Balkovec, Regina Black and Frances A. Bouffard.[2] It is a member of a new class of antifungals termed the echinocandins. It works by inhibiting the enzyme(13)-β-D-glucan synthase and thereby disturbing the integrity of the fungal cell wall. Caspofungin was the first inhibitor of fungal (13)-β-D-glucan synthesis to be approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[3] Caspofungin is administered intravenously.

Cefaclor 頭孢克洛
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cefaclor

Cefaclor, developed by Eli Lilly under the trade name Ceclor, is a second-generation cephalosporinantibiotic used to treat some infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and infections of the ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract. It is also available from other manufacturers as a generic.[1]

Cefaclor belongs to the family of antibiotics known as the cephalosporins (cefalosporins). The cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are used for the treatment of septicaemia,pneumonia, meningitis, biliary tract infections, peritonitis, and urinary tract infections. The pharmacology of the cephalosporins is similar to that of the penicillins, excretion being principally renal. Cephalosporins penetrate the cerebrospinal fluid poorly unless the meninges are inflamed;cefotaxime is a more suitable cephalosporin than cefaclor for infections of the central nervous system, e.g. meningitis. Cefaclor is active against many bacteria, including both Gram-negative andGram-positive organisms.

Cephalexin 頭孢氨芐
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cefalexin

Cefalexin, also spelled cephalexin, is an antibiotic that can treat a number of bacterial infections. It kills gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the growth of the bacterial cell wall. Cefalexin is a beta-lactam antibiotic within the class of first-generation cephalosporins.[3] It works similarly to other agents within this class, including intravenous cefazolin, but can be taken by mouth.[4]e taken by mouth.[4]

Chlormezanone (marketed under the brandname Trancopal or Fenaprim) is a drug used as ananxiolytic and a muscle relaxant.d a muscle relaxant.

Chlorzoxazone 氯唑沙宗
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorzoxazone

Chlorzoxazone (INN) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant used to treat muscle spasm and the resulting pain or discomfort. It acts on the spinal cord by depressing reflexes. It is sold under the trade names "Lorzone", Paraflex and Muscol and in combination form as Parafon Forte, a combination of chlorzoxazone and acetaminophen (paracetamol). Possible side effects includedizziness, lightheadedness, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and liver dysfunction. Used with acetaminophen it has added risk of hepatoxicity,[medical citation needed] which is why the combination is not recommended. It can also be administered for acute pain in general and for tension headache (muscle contraction headache).ntraction headache).

Cilastatin Sodium 西司他汀鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cilastatin

Cilastatin is a chemical compound which inhibits the human enzyme dehydropeptidase.[1]dehydropeptidase.[1]

Clofibrate 氯貝特
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clofibrate

Clofibrate (tradename Atromid-S) is an organic compound. It is marketed as a fibrate. It is a lipid-lowering agent used for controlling the high cholesterol and triacylglyceride level in the blood. It increases lipoprotein lipase activity to promote the conversion of VLDL to LDL, and hence reduce the level of VLDL. It can increase the level of HDL as well.

Clonidine HCl 可樂定
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonidine

Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.[4] It is classified as a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist and imidazoline receptoragonist that has been in clinical use for over 40 years.[5]

Cloperastine HCL 氯帕他汀
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloperastine
 

Colesevelam Hydrochloride 考來維侖
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colesevelam

The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. They disrupt theenterohepatic circulation of bile acids by combining with bile constituents and preventing their reabsorption from the gut. In general, they are classified as hypolipidemic agents, although they may be used for purposes other than lowering cholesterol. They are used in the treatment ofchronic diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption.

Bile acid sequestrants are polymeric compounds that serve as ion-exchange resins. Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester them from the enterohepatic circulation. The liver then produces more bile acids to replace those that have been lost. Because the body uses cholesterol to make bile acids, this reduces the amount of LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood.[1] circulating in the blood.[1]

Bile acid sequestrants are large polymeric structures, and they are not significantly absorbed from the gut into the bloodstream. Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the gastrointestinal tract.[2]

Colestipol Hydrochloride 考來替泊
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colestipol

Colestipol (trade names Colestid, Cholestabyl) is a bile acid sequestrant used to lower bloodcholesterol, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL).[1][2] It is also used to reduce stool volume and frequency, and in the treatment of chronic diarrhea.[3]

Like cholestyramine, colestipol works in the gut by trapping bile acids and preventing them from being reabsorbed. This leads to decreased enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids, increased synthesis of new bile acids by the liver from cholesterol, decreased liver cholesterol, increased LDL receptor expression, and decreasing LDL in blood.[4]

Crotamiton 克羅他米通
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotamiton

Crotamiton is a drug that is used both as a scabicidal (for treating scabies) and as a general antipruritic (anti-itching drug). It is a prescription lotion based medicine that is applied to the whole body to get rid of the scabies parasite that burrows under the skin and causes itching.
Pharmacology[edit]
The mechanism of action of crotamiton is unknown, however it is toxic to the scabies mite.[2]

Cyclophosphamide 環磷酰胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide (INN), also known as cytophosphane,[3] is a medication mainly used inchemotherapy. It is an alkylating agent of the nitrogen mustard type[4] (specifically, the oxazaphosphorine group[5]).

An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. This interferes with DNA replication by forming intrastrand and interstrand DNA crosslinks.ntrastrand and interstrand DNA crosslinks.

Cyclophosphamide is used to treat cancers, autoimmune disorders and AL amyloidosis. As aprodrug, it is converted by liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form the metabolite 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide that has chemotherapeutic activity.[6]

Dantrolene Sodium 丹曲林鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dantrolene

Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant that lessens excitation-contraction coupling inmuscle cells. It achieves this by inhibiting Ca2+ ions release from sarcoplasmic reticulum stores by antagonizing ryanodine receptors.[1] It is the primary drug used for the treatment and prevention ofmalignant hyperthermia, a rare, life-threatening disorder triggered by general anesthesia. It is also used in the management of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, muscle spasticity (e.g. after strokes, inparaplegia, cerebral palsy, or patients with multiple sclerosis), and 2,4-dinitrophenol poisoning.[2] 2,4-dinitrophenol poisoning.[2]

It is marketed by JHP Pharmaceuticals LLC as Dantrium (in North America) and by Norgine BV as Dantrium, Dantamacrin, or Dantrolen (in Europe). A hospital is recommended to keep a minimum stock of 36 dantrolene vials (720 mg) sufficient for a 70-kg person.[3] As of 2015 the cost for a typical course of medication in the United States is 100 to 200 USD.[4]

Daptomycin 達托黴素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daptomycin

Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of systemic and life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. It is a naturally occurring compound found in the soil saprotroph Streptomyces roseosporus. Its distinct mechanism of action makes it useful in treating infections caused by multiple drug-resistant bacteria. It is marketed in the United States under the trade name Cubicin by Cubist Pharmaceuticals.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Daptomycin has a distinct mechanism of action, disrupting multiple aspects of bacterial cell membrane function. It inserts into the cell membrane in a phosphatidylglycerol-dependent fashion, where it then aggregates. The aggregation of daptomycin alters the curvature of the membrane, which creates holes that leak ions. This causes rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA, and RNA synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death.[4]

Decitabine 地西他濱
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decitabine

Decitabine is a hypomethylating agent.[3][4] It hypomethylates DNA by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase.

It functions in a similar manner to azacitidine, although decitabine can only be incorporated into DNA strands while azacitidine can be incorporated into both DNA and RNA chains.
Clinical uses[edit]
Decitabine is indicated for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) including previously treated and untreated, de novo and secondary MDS of all French-American-British subtypes (refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) and Intermediate-1, Intermediate-2, and High-Risk International Prognostic Scoring System groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, Batty and colleagues reported the first case series on the feasibility of therapy with hypomethylating agents in patients with renal insufficiency.[5]
It also has EU approval for acute myeloid leukemia (AML).[2]

Desmopressin Acetate 去氨加壓素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmopressin
 

Desmopressin (trade names: DDAVP, others) is a synthetic replacement for vasopressin, the hormone that reduces urine production. It may be taken nasally, intravenously, or as an oral or sublingual tablet. Physicians prescribe desmopressin most frequently for treatment of diabetes insipidus, bedwetting, or nocturia, thrombocytopathy

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[1]

Diclofenac Diethylamine
Diclofenac Epolamine
Diclofenac Potassium
Diclofenac Sodium

雙氯芬酸
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diclofenac

The primary mechanism responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic action is thought to be inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). It also appears to exhibit bacteriostatic activity by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis.[27] 

Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names)[1] is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions. It is supplied as or contained in medications under a variety of trade names.edications under a variety of trade names.

The name "diclofenac" derives from its chemical name: 2-(2,6-dichloranilino) phenylacetic acid. Diclofenac was first synthesized by Alfred Sallmann and Rudolf Pfister and introduced as Voltaren by Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis) in 1973.[3]

In the United Kingdom, United States, India, and Brazil diclofenac may be supplied as either the sodium or potassium salt; in China, it is most often supplied as the sodium salt, while in some other countries it is only available as the potassium salt. It is available as a generic drug in a number of formulations, including diclofenac diethylamine, which is applied topically.

Dimemorfan Phosphate 二甲啡烷 磷酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimemorfan

Dimemorfan (INN) (or dimemorphan) (brand names Astomin, Dastosirr, Tusben), or dimemorfan phosphate (JAN), also known as 3,17-dimethylmorphinan, is an antitussive (cough suppressant) of the morphinan family that is widely used in Japan and is also marketed in Spain and Italy.[1][2][3][4] It was developed by Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical (now Astellas Pharma) and introduced in Japan in 1975.[3] Dimemorfan is an analogue of dextromethorphan(DXM) and its active metabolite dextrorphan (DXO), and similarly to them, acts as a potent agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 151 nM).[5][6]However, unlike DXM and DXO, it does not act significantly as an NMDA receptor antagonist, and for this reason, lacks dissociativeeffects, thereby having reduced side effects and abuse potential in comparison.[7][8] Similarly to DXM and DXO, dimemorfan has only relatively low affinity for the σ2 receptor (Ki = 4421 nM).[6]

Dinoprostone β-Cyclodextin 地諾前列酮 β-環糊精
Prostaglandin E2
前列腺素E2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostaglandin_E2

The naturally occurring prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 or PGE2) is known in medicine as dinoprostone. It has important effects in labour (softening the cervix and causing uterine contraction) and also stimulates osteoblasts to release factors that stimulate bone resorption by osteoclasts. PGE2 is also the prostaglandin that ultimately induces fever.ostaglandin that ultimately induces fever.

PGE2 also suppresses T cell receptor signaling and may play a role in resolution of inflammation.[1]

Cyclodextrin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclodextrin
Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).ether in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).

Cyclodextrins are produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion. They are used in food, pharmaceutical,[1] drug delivery,[2] and chemical industries, as well as agriculture and environmental engineering.

Cyclodextrins are composed of 5 or more α-D-glucopyranoside units linked 1->4, as in amylose (a fragment of starch). The 5-membered macrocycle is not natural. Recently, the largest well-characterized cyclodextrin contains 32 1,4-anhydroglucopyranoside units, while as a poorly characterized mixture, at least 150-membered cyclic oligosaccharides are also known. Typical cyclodextrins contain a number of glucose monomers ranging from six to eight units in a ring, creating a cone shape:

Diphemanil Methylsulphate 敵草胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diphemanil_metilsulfate

Diphemanil metilsulfate is an antimuscarinic.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscarinic_antagonist
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter whose receptor is a protein found in synapses and other cell membranes. Besides responding to their primary neurochemical, neurotransmitter receptors can be sensitive to a variety of other molecules. Acetylcholine receptors are classified into two groups based on this:
    muscarinic, which respond to muscarine
    nicotinic, which respond to nicotine
Most muscarinic receptor antagonists are synthetic chemicals; however, the two most commonly used anticholinergics, scopolamine and atropine, are belladonna alkaloids, and are naturally extracted.

Divalproex Sodium 雙丙戊酸鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valproate

Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and divalproex sodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.[2] It is useful for the prevention of seizures in those with absence seizures, partial seizures, and generalized seizures. It can be given intravenously or by mouth. Long and short acting formulations exist.[2]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Although the mechanism of action of valproate is not fully understood,[37] it has recently been shown to protect against a seizure-induced reduction in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) as a potential therapeutic mechanism.[49] In addition, its anticonvulsant effect has been attributed to the blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels and increased brain levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).[37] The GABAergic effect is also believed to contribute towards the anti-manic properties of valproate.[37] In animals, sodium valproate raises cerebral and cerebellar levels of the inhibitory synaptic neurotransmitter, GABA, possibly by inhibiting GABA degradative enzymes, such as GABA transaminase, succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase and by inhibiting the re-uptake of GABA by neuronal cells.[37]

It also has histone deacetylase-inhibiting effects. The inhibition of histone deacetylase, by promoting more transcriptionally active chromatin structures, likely presents the epigenetic mechanism for regulation of many of the neuroprotective effects attributed to valproic acid. Intermediate molecules mediating these effects include VEGF, BDNF, and GDNF.[50][51]ects attributed to valproic acid. Intermediate molecules mediating these effects include VEGF, Valproic acid has been found to be an antagonist of the androgen and progesterone receptors, and hence as a non-steroidal antiandrogen and antiprogestogen, at concentrations much lower than therapeutic serum levels.[52] In addition, the drug has been identified as a potent aromatase inhibitor, and suppresses estrogen concentrations.[53] These actions are likely to be involved in the reproductive endocrine disturbances seen with valproic acid treatment.[52][53]

DL-methylephedrine Hydrochloride DL-甲基麻黃鹼 鹽酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-Methylephedrine
 

N-Methylephedrine is a derivative of ephedrine. It has been isolated from Ephedra distachya.[2]
In organic chemistry, N-methylephedrine is used as a resolving agent and as a precursor to chiral supporting electrolytes, phase-transfer catalysts, and reducing agents.[3]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephedrine
Ephedrine is a medication used to prevent low blood pressure during spinal anesthesia.[1] It has also been used for asthma, narcolepsy, and obesity but is not the preferred treatment.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Ephedrine, a sympathomimetic amine, acts on part of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The principal mechanism of action relies on its indirect stimulation of the adrenergic receptor system by increasing the activity of norepinephrine at the postsynaptic α and β receptors.[23] The presence of direct interactions with α receptors is unlikely, but still controversial.[8][32][33] L-ephedrine, and particularly its stereoisomer norpseudoephedrine (which is also present in Catha edulis) has indirect sympathomimetic effects and due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, it is a CNS stimulant similar to amphetamines, but less pronounced, as it releases noradrenaline and dopamine in the substantia nigra.[34]

The presence of an N-methyl group decreases binding affinities at α receptors, compared with norephedrine. Ephedrine, though, binds better than N-methylephedrine, which has an additional methyl group at the nitrogen atom. Also the steric orientation of the hydroxyl group is important for receptor binding and functional activity.[32]

Docetaxel 多西他賽
Docetaxel Trihydrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Docetaxel

Docetaxel is a well-established anti-mitotic chemotherapy medication that works by interfering with cell division. Docetaxel is approved by the FDA for treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, head and neck cancer, gastric cancer, hormone-refractory prostate cancer and non small-cell lung cancer.[1] Docetaxel can be used as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs as indicated depending on specific cancer type and stage.[2]

Docetaxel is a member of the taxane drug class, which also includes the chemotherapeutic medication paclitaxel.
Molecular target[edit]
Docetaxel binds to microtubules reversibly with high affinity and has a maximum stoichiometry of 1 mole docetaxel per mole tubulin in microtubules.[31] This binding stabilizes microtubules and prevents depolymerisation from calcium ions, decreased temperature and dilution, preferentially at the plus end of the microtubule.[31] Docetaxel has been found to accumulate to higher concentration in ovarian adenocarcinoma cells than kidney carcinoma cells, which may contribute to the more effective treatment of ovarian cancer by docetaxel.[10][31] It has also been found to lead to the phosphorylation of oncoprotein bcl-2, which is apoptosis-blocking in its oncoprotein form.[10]
Modes of action[edit]
The cytotoxic activity of docetaxel is exerted by promoting and stabilising microtubule assembly, while preventing physiological microtubule depolymerisation/disassembly in the absence of GTP.[10][16][32] This leads to a significant decrease in free tubulin, needed for microtubule formation and results in inhibition of mitotic cell division between metaphase and anaphase, preventing further cancer cell progeny.[10][13][31]

Donepezil HCl 多奈哌齊
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donepezil

Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept, is a medication used in the palliative treatmentof Alzheimer's disease.[1][2] Donepezil is used to improve cognition and behavior of people with Alzheimer's, but does not slow the progression of or cure the disease.[3]Common side effects include loss of appetite, gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea, difficulty sleeping, vomiting, or muscle cramping.[4]
It was developed by Eisai and Pfizer and is sold as a generic by multiple suppliers. Donepezil acts as a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.[5]

Doxercalciferol 骨化鈣醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doxercalciferol

Doxercalciferol (trade name Hectorol) is drug for secondary hyperparathyroidism and metabolic bone disease.[1] It is a synthetic analog of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). It suppresses parathyroidsynthesis and secretion.[2]

Duloxetine hydrochloride 度洛西汀 鹽酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duloxetine

Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others,[1] is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). It is mostly prescribed for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.[2] (SNRI). It is mostly prescribed for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disoDuloxetine failed to receive US approval for stress urinary incontinence amid concerns over liver toxicity and suicidal events; however, it was approved for this indication in the UK, where it is recommended as an add-on medication in stress urinary incontinence instead of surgery.[3] It was originally made by Eli Lilly.

Econazole Nitrate https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Econazole

Econazole (commonly used as the nitrate salt) is an antifungal medication of the imidazole class.[1]
Pharmaceutical derivatives[edit]
The substituted imidazole derivatives are valuable in treatment of many systemic fungal infections.[17] Imidazoles belong to the class of azole antifungals
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifungal#Imidazole.2C_triazole.2C_and_thiazole_antifungals
Azole antifungal drugs (except for abafungin) inhibit the enzyme lanosterol 14 α-demethylase; the enzyme necessary to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. Depletion of ergosterol in fungal membrane disrupts the structure and many functions of fungal membrane leading to inhibition of fungal growth.[2]

Eflornithine Hydrochloride 地普崙胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eflornithine
 

Eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO) is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of facial hirsutism[1] (excessive hair growth) as well as in African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).[2] Eflornithine hydrochloride cream for topical application is meant for women affected by facial hirsutism. 
Description[edit]
Eflornithine is a "suicide inhibitor," irreversibly binding to Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and preventing the natural substrate ornithine from accessing the active site (Figure 1). Within the active site of ODC, eflornithine undergoes decarboxylation with aid of the cofactor pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP). Because of its additional difluoromethyl group in comparison to ornithine, eflornithine is able to bind to a neighboring Cys-360 residue, permanently remaining fixated within the active site.

Entacapone 恩他卡朋
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entacapone

Entacapone (INN) is a medication commonly used in combination with other medications for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[1] Entacapone together with levodopa and carbidopa allows levodopa to have a longer effect in the brain and reduces Parkinson’s disease signs and symptomsfor a greater length of time than levodopa and carbidopa therapy alone.[1]

Entacapone is known as a selective and reversible inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).[1] When taken together with levodopa (L-DOPA) and carbidopa, entacapone stops catechol-O-methyltransferase from breaking down and metabolizing levodopa, resulting in an overall increase of levodopa remaining in the brain and body.[1]Mechanism of action[edit]
Entacapone is a selective and reversible inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).[1] COMT eliminates biologically active catecholspresent in catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and their hydroxylated metabolites. When administered with a decarboxylase inhibitor, COMT acts as the major metabolizing enzyme for levodopa and metabolizes it to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-L-phenylalanine(3-OMD) in the brain and in the periphery.[1]
For the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, entacapone is given as an adjunct to levodopa and an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, carbidopa. Entacapone inhibits COMT and the metabolism of levodopa, thus increasing plasma levels of levodopa and causing more constant dopaminergic stimulation in order to reduce the signs and symptoms presented in the disease.[1]

Entecavir monohydrate 恩替卡韋一水合物
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entecavir
 

Entecavir (ETV), is an antiviral medication used in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. It is taken by mouth. Entecavir is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. It prevents the hepatitis B virus from multiplying and reduces the amount of virus in the body.[1] 

Entecavir is a nucleoside analog,[7] More specifically, it is a deoxyguanosine analogue belonging to a class of carbocyclic nucleosides, that inhibits reverse transcription, DNA replication and transcription in the viral replication process.

Eperisone HCl 丙哌維酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eperisone
 

Eperisone (formulated as the eperisone hydrochloride salt) is an antispasmodic drug.
Eperisone acts by relaxing both skeletal muscles and vascular smooth muscles, and demonstrates a variety of effects such as reduction of myotonia, improvement of circulation, and suppression of the pain reflex. The drug inhibits the vicious circle of myotonia by decreasing pain, ischaemia, and hypertonia in skeletal muscles, thus alleviating stiffness and spasticity, and facilitating muscle movement[1]

Eperisone also improves dizziness and tinnitus associated with cerebrovascular disorders or cervical spondylosis.

Ephedrine Hydrochloride 麻黃素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephedrine

Ephedrine is a medication used to prevent low blood pressure during spinal anesthesia.[1] It has also been used for asthma, narcolepsy, and obesity but is not the preferred treatment. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a muscle, vein, or just under the skin. Onset with intravenous use is fast, while injection into a muscle can take 20 minutes, and by mouth can take an hour for effect. When given by injection it lasts about an hour and when taken by mouth it can last up to four hours.[1]or just under the skin. Onset with intravenous use is fast, while injection into a muscle can take 20 minutes, and by mouth can take an hour for effect. When given by injection it lasts about an hour and when taken by mouth it can last up to four hours.[1]

Ephedrine, a sympathomimetic amine, acts on part of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The principal mechanism of action relies on its indirect stimulation of the adrenergic receptor system by increasing the activity of norepinephrine at the postsynaptic α and β receptors.[23] The presence of direct interactions with α receptors is unlikely, but still controversial.[8][32][33] L-ephedrine, and particularly its stereoisomer norpseudoephedrine (which is also present in Catha edulis) has indirect sympathomimetic effects and due to its ability to cross the The presence of an N-methyl group decreases binding affinities at α receptors, compared with norephedrine. Ephedrine, though, binds better than N-methylephedrine, which has an additional methyl group at the nitrogen atom. Also the steric orientation of the hydroxyl group is important for receptor binding and functional activity.[32]

Epoprostenol Sodium
依前列醇鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostacyclin

Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules. It inhibits platelet activation and is also an effective vasodilator.

Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules. It inhibits platelet activation and is also an effective vasodilator.

Ertapenem 厄他培南
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ertapenem
 

Ertapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic marketed by Merck as Invanz. It is structurally very similar to meropenem in that it possesses a 1-β-methyl group. Other members of the carbapenem group (imipenem, doripenem, and meropenem) are broadly active antibacterials that are used for infections caused by difficult to treat or multidrug-resistant bacteria (such as ESBL expressing Klebsiella pneumonia). They have very short serum half-lives and must be administered by intravenous infusion every 6 to 8 hours. Ertapenem differs from other carbapenems in having a somewhat less broad spectrum of activity (not against Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and in that its extended serum half-life allows it to be administered once every 24 hours.[1]

Ethoxybenzamide 乙氧基苯甲酰胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethenzamide

Ethenzamide, Systematic (IUPAC) name 2-ethoxybenzamide, is a ommon analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains.[1][2] It is an ingredient in numerous cold medications and many prescription analgesics.

Ethyl Icosapentate 二十碳五烯酸乙酯
ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethyl_eicosapentaenoic_acid

Ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA, icosapent ethyl) is a derivative of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is used in combination with changes in diet to lower triglyceridelevels in adults with severe (≥ 500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. This was the second class of fish oil-based drug to be approved for use as a drug and was approved by the FDA in 2012. These fish oil drugs are similar to fish oil dietary supplements but the ingredients are better controlled and have been tested in clinical trials. he second class of fish oil-based drug to be approved for use as a drug and was approved by the FDA in 2012. These fish oil drugs are similar to fish oil dietary supplements but the ingredients are better controlled and have been tested in clinical trials.

The company that developed this drug, Amarin Corporation, challenged the FDA's ability to limit its ability to market the drug for off-label use and won its case on appeal in 2012, changing the way the FDA regulates pharmaceutical marketing.

The active metabolite of E-EPA, like other omega-3 fatty acid based drugs, appears to reduce production of triglycerides in the liver, and to enhance clearance of triglycerides from circulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles; the way it does that is not clear, but potential mechanisms include increased breakdown of fatty acids; inhibition of diglyceride acyltransferase which is involved in biosynthesis of triglycerides in the liver; and increased activity of lipoprotein lipase in blood.[1][3]

15 Health Benefits Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, According To Science (+15 Best Omega-3 Foods)
https://www.jenreviews.com/omega-3/

Omega-3 is important for quite a few reasons, some of which being;
Regulation of blood clotting
Boosting artery wall relaxation and contraction
Strengthening of cell membranes
Normalizing the speed at which your heart beats
Brain development and growth
And that’s just the beginning. If you're not reaching for a plate of salmon just yet, you will be after this list!

1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Helps Fight Anxiety
2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Eye Health
3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Can Help Fight Infertility
4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Can Be Used To Treat Skin Issues
5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Cardiovascular health
6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Can Ease Menstrual Pain
7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Reduces Fatty Liver
8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevents And Reverses Insulin Resistance
9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Lowers Cholesterol
10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protects And Improves Brain Health During Pregnancy
11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Counters Inflammation
12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fights Autoimmune Disease
13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves Sleep Patterns
14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help With Symptoms Of ADHD
15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Can Be Beneficial To Persons Living With Asthma

15 Best Omega-3 Fatty Acids Rich Foods :
1. Salmon
2. Chia seeds
3. Walnuts
4. Egg Yolks
5. Spinach
6. Fish Oil
7. Soybeans
8. Mackerel
9. Flaxseeds
10. Oysters
11. Anchovies
12. Tofu
13. Lentils
14. Mustard seeds
15. Kidney Beans

Everolimus  依維莫司
Everolimus B20
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everolimus

Everolimus (INN) (/ˌɛvəˈroʊləməs/) (earlier code name RAD001) is the 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl) derivative of sirolimus and works similarly to sirolimus as an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).ass="MsoNormal"> Everolimus (INN) (/ˌɛvəˈroʊləməs/) (earlier IIt is currently used as an immunosuppressant to prevent rejection of organ transplants and treatment of renal cell cancer and other tumours. Much research has also been conducted on everolimus and other mTOR inhibitors as targeted therapy for use in a number of cancers.

Exemestane 依西美坦
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exemestane

Exemestane (trade name Aromasin) is a drug used to treat breast cancer. It is a member of the class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors. Some breast cancers require estrogen to grow. Those cancers have estrogen receptors (ERs), and are called ER-positive. They may also be called estrogen-responsive, hormonally-responsive, or hormone-receptor-positive. Aromatase is an enzyme that synthesizes estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors block the synthesis of estrogen. This lowers the estrogen level, and slows the growth of cancers.

Famotidine 法莫替丁
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famotidine

Famotidine, sold under the trade name Pepcid among others is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Unlike cimetidine, the first H2 antagonist, famotidine has no effect on the cytochrome P450enzyme system, and does not appear to interact with other drugs.[2]

It was discovered in 1979.[3]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H2_antagonist
H2 antagonists, also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach. This decreases the production of stomach acid. H2 antagonists can be used in the treatment of dyspepsia, but have been surpassed by the more effective[1] proton pump inhibitors. They are also used to treat peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease

Felodipine 非洛地平
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felodipine

Felodipine is a calcium channel blocker (calcium antagonist), a drug used to control hypertension(high blood pressure).
Felodipine is a calcium channel blocker.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_channel_blocker
Felodipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor, or as an antimineralocorticoid.[4]

Flavoxate Hydrochloride 氟沙星
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavoxate

Flavoxate is an anticholinergic with antimuscarinic effects. Its muscle relaxant properties may be due to a direct action on the smooth muscle rather than by antagonizing muscarinic receptors.

Flavoxate is an anticholinergic with antimuscarinic effects. Its muscle relaxant properties may be due to a direct action on the smooth muscle rather than by antagonizing muscarinic receptors.

Flavoxate is used to treat urinary bladder spasms. It is available under the trade name Urispas (Paladin),Genurin (by Recordati, Italy) in Flavoxate is indicated for symptomatic relief of interstitial cystitis, dysuria, urgency, nocturia, suprapubic pain, frequency and incontinence as may occur in cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis, urethrocystitis/urethrotrigonitis.

Fluconazole 氟康唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluconazole

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that is given either by mouth or intravenously. It is used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially Candida infections of the vagina (yeast infections), mouth, throat, and bloodstream. It is also used to prevent infections in people with weak immune systems, including those with neutropenia due to cancer chemotherapy, transplant patients, and premature babies.
In those who are pregnant it may increase the risk of miscarriage.[1]
Mechanism of action[edit] Like other imidazole- and triazole-class antifungals, fluconazole inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase. Mammalian demethylase activity is much less sensitive to fluconazole than fungal demethylase. This inhibition prevents the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane, and subsequent accumulation of 14α-methyl sterols.[16] Fluconazole is primarily fungistatic; however, it may be fungicidal against certain organisms in a dose-dependent manner, specifically Cryptococcus.[25]

It is interesting to note, when fluconazole was in development at Pfizer, it was decided early in the process to avoid producing any chiral centers in the drug so subsequent synthesis and purification would not encounter difficulties with enantiomer separation and associated variations in biological effect.[citation needed] A number of related compounds were found to be extremely potent teratogens, and were subsequently discarded.[citation needed]

Fludiazepam 氟脲重
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fludiazepam

Fludiazepam, marketed under the brand name Erispan (エリスパン)[1][2] is a potent benzodiazepine and 2ʹ-fluoro derivative of diazepam,[3] originally developed by Hoffman-La Roche in the 1960s.[4] It is marketed in Japan and Taiwan.[citation needed] It exerts its pharmacological properties via enhancement of GABAergic inhibition.[5] Fludiazepam has 4 times more binding affinity for benzodiazepine receptors than diazepam.[6] It possesses anxiolytic,[7][8][9] anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.[10]
As with all benzodiazepines, fludiazepam is used recreationally.[11]

Flumazenil 氟馬西尼
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flumazenil
 

Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist[1] primarily available by injection only. It has antagonistic and antidote properties to therapeutically used benzodiazapenes, through competitive inhibition.lso known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist[It was first introduced in 1987 by Hoffmann-La Roche under the trade name Anexate, but only approved by the FDA on December 20, 1991. Flumazenil went off patent in 2008 so at present generic formulations of this drug are available. Intravenous flumazenil is primarily used to treat benzodiazepine overdoses and to help reverse anesthesia. Administration of flumazenil by sublingual lozenge and topical cream has also been tested.[2][3]

Flupentixol Dihydrochloride 氟達醇 二鹽酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flupentixol

Flupentixol (INN), also known as flupenthixol (former BAN), marketed under brand names such as Depixol and Fluanxol is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene class. It was introduced in 1965 by Lundbeck. In addition to single drug preparations, it is also available as flupentixol/melitracen—a combination product containing both melitracen (a tricyclic antidepressant) and flupentixol. Flupentixol is not approved for use in the United States. It is, however, approved for use in the UK,[4] Australia,[5] Canada, Russian Federation,[6] South Africa, New Zealand, Philippinesand various other countries.

Fondaparinux Sodium 磺達肝素鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fondaparinux

Fondaparinux (trade name Arixtra) is an anticoagulant medication chemically related to low molecular weight heparins. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. A generic version developed by Alchemia is marketed within the US by Dr. Reddy's Laboratories. 

Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide factor Xa inhibitor. Apart from the O-methyl group at the reducing end of the molecule, the identity and sequence of the five monomeric sugar units contained in fondaparinux is identical to a sequence of five monomeric sugar units that can be isolated after either chemical or enzymatic cleavage of the polymeric glycosaminoglycans heparinand heparin sulfate (HS). Within heparin and heparin sulfate this monomeric sequence is thought to form the high-affinity binding site for the anti-coagulant factor antithrombin III (ATIII). Binding of heparin/HS to ATIII has been shown to increase the anti-coagulant activity of antithrombin III 1000 fold. In contrast to heparin, fondaparinux does not inhibit thrombin.

Fulvestrant 氟維司群
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulvestrant

Fulvestrant (trade name Faslodex, by AstraZeneca) is a drug treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression following anti-estrogen therapy. It is a complete estrogen receptor antagonist with no agonist effects, which in addition, accelerates the proteasomal degradation of the estrogen receptor.[1] The drug has poor oral bioavailability, and is administered monthly via intramuscular injection.[2]

Fursultiamine Hydrochloride (Fulfultiamine鹽酸鹽)
Fursultiamine powder
Thiamine Tetrahydrofurfuryl Disulfide

維生素B1衍生物
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fursultiamine


Fursultiamine (INN; Adventan, Alinamin-F, Benlipoid, Bevitol Lipophil, Judolor), also known as thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), is a disulfide derivative of thiamine, or an allithiamine.[1] It was synthesized in Japan in the 1960s for the purpose of developing forms of thiamine with improved lipophilicity for treating vitamin B1 deficiency (i.e., beriberi),[1][2] and was subsequently commercialized not only in Japan but also in Spain, Austria, Germany, and the United States.[3] As a vitamin, it is available over-the-counter as well.[4]

In addition to its clinical indication of avitaminosis, fursultiamine has been studied in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease and autistic spectrum disorders with positive but modest benefits.[5][6] It has also been investigated in improving energy metabolism during exercise and reducing exercise-induced fatigue with conflicting results.[4][7][8][9]

Gadodiamide Hydrate 甘二酰胺水合物
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadodiamide

Gadodiamide is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent, used in MR imagingprocedures to assist in the visualization of blood vessels. It is commonly marketed under the trade name Omniscan.
A 2015 study found trace amounts of Gadolinium deposited in the brain tissue of patients that had received Gadodiamide.[1][2]
Gadodiamide is a contrast medium for cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and for general MRI of the body after intravenous administration. The product provides contrast enhancement and facilitates visualisation of abnormal structures or lesions in various parts of the body including the central nervous system (CNS). It does not cross an intact blood brain barrier but might give enhancement in pathological conditions.

Gadopentetate Dimeglumine 戊二酸二甲葡胺https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadopentetic_acid

Gadopentetic acid is one of the trade names for a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent, usually administered as a salt of a complex of gadolinium with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentacetate) with the chemical formula A2[Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]; when cation A is the protonated form of the amino sugarmeglumine the salt goes under the name "gadopentetate dimeglumine". It was described in 1981 and introduced as the first MRI contrast agent in 1987. It is used to assist imaging of blood vessels and of inflamed or diseased tissue where the blood vessels become "leaky". It is often used when viewing intracranial lesions with abnormal vascularity or abnormalities in the blood–brain barrier. It is usually injected intravenously. Gd-DTPA is classed as an acyclic, ionic gadolinium contrast medium. Its paramagnetic property reduces the T1 relaxation time (and to some extent the T2 and T2* relaxation times) in NMR, which is the source of its clinical utility.

Gadoterate Meglumine 釓特酸葡甲胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadoteric_acid

Gadoteric acid (trade names Artirem, Dotarem or Dotagita) is a macrocycle-structured gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent. It consists of the organic acid DOTA as a chelating agent, and gadolinium (Gd3+), and is used in form of the meglumine salt (Gadoterate).[1] The drug is approved and used in a number of countries worldwide.[2] It is used to assist imaging of blood vessels and of inflamed or diseased tissue where the blood vessels become 'leaky'. It is often used when viewing intracranial lesions with abnormal vascularity or abnormalities in the blood–brain barrier. Gadoteric acid is used for MRI imaging of the brain, spine, and associated tissues for adult and pediatric (2 year of age or older) patients.[3] The meglumine salt it takes the form of crosses the blood brain barrier of tissue with abnormal vasculature, highlighting the affected area with MRI. Gadoterate does not cross the intact blood-brain barrier, so it does not affect or enhance normal brain tissue in imaging [3].

Galantamine HBr 加蘭他敏
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galantamine

Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin. It is an alkaloid that is obtained synthetically or from the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus caucasicus (Caucasian snowdrop, Voronov's snowdrop), Galanthus woronowii(Amaryllidaceae) and related genera like Narcissus (daffodil), Leucojum aestivum (snowflake), and Lycoris including Lycoris radiata (red spider lily).[1]ious other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin. It is an alkaloid that is Studies of usage in modern medicine began in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. The active ingredient was extracted, identified, and studied, in particular in relation to its acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting properties. The bulk of the work was carried out by Soviet pharmacologists M. D. Mashkovsky and R. P. Kruglikova–Lvova, beginning in 1951.[2] The work of Mashkovsky and Kruglikova-Lvova was the first published work that demonstrated the AChE-inhibiting properties of galantamine.[3]

Gemcitabine HCl 吉西他濱
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemcitabine
 

Gemcitabine (pronunciation: jem-SITE-a-been) is a nucleoside analog used in chemotherapy. It is marketed as Gemzar by Eli Lilly and Company.://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine (pronunciation: jem-SITE-a-been) is a nucleoside analog used in chemotherapy. It is marketed as Gemzar by Eli Lilly and Company.

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential As with fluorouracil and other analogues of pyrimidines, the triphosphate analogue of gemcitabine replaces one of the building blocks of nucleic acids, in this case cytidine, during DNA replication. The process arrests tumor growth, as only one additional nucleoside can be attached to the "faulty" nucleoside, resulting in apoptosis.

Another target of gemcitabine is the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). The diphosphate analogue binds to RNR active site and inactivates the enzyme irreversibly. Once RNR is inhibited, the cell cannot produce the deoxyribonucleotides required for DNA replication and repair, and cell apoptosis is induced.[5]

Gimeracil 吉莫斯特
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil

Mechanism of action[edit]
Tegafur is the actual chemotherapeutic agent. It is a prodrug of the active substance fluorouracil (5-FU).

Gimeracil inhibits the degradation of fluorouracil by reversibly blocking a dehydrogenase enzyme. This results in higher 5-FU levels and a prolonged half-life of the substance.

Oteracil mainly stays in the gut because of its low permeability, where it reduces the production of 5-FU by blocking the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. Lower 5-FU levels in the gut result in a lower gastrointestinal toxicity.[8]

Glyceryl Guaiacolate 甘油癒創木酚
Guaifenesin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guaifenesin
 

Guaifenesin INN /ɡwaɪˈfɛnᵻsɪn/ or guaiphenesin (former BAN), also glyceryl guaiacolate,[2] is an expectorant drug sold over the counter and usually taken orally to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.

Mechanism of action[edit]
Guaifenesin is thought to act as an expectorant by increasing the volume and reducing the viscosity of secretions in the trachea and bronchi. It has been said to aid in the flow of respiratory tract secretions, allowing ciliary movement to carry the loosened secretions upward toward the pharynx.[12] Thus, it may increase the efficiency of the cough reflex and facilitate removal of the secretions.

Guaifenesin has muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may be acting as an NMDA receptor antagonist.[13]

Granisetron Base 格拉司瓊
Granisetron Hydrochloride
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granisetron
 

Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy

Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. Its main effect is to reduce the activity of the vagus nerve, which is a nerve that activates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. It does not have much effect on vomiting due to motion sickness. This drug does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors.

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate 羥基氯喹 硫酸鹽https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the trade names Plaquenil among others, is an antimalarial medication.
It is also used to reduce inflammation in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(see disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs) and lupus. Hydroxychloroquine differs from chloroquineby the presence of a hydroxyl group at the end of the side chain: the N-ethyl substituent is beta-hydroxylated. It is available for administration by mouth as hydroxychloroquine sulfate. an antimalarial medication.
It is also used to reduce inflammation in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(see disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs) and lupus. Hydroxychloroquine differs from chloroquineby the presence of a hydroxyl group at the end of the side chain: the N-ethyl substituent is beta-hydroxylated.
It is available for As with other quinoline antimalarial drugs, the mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved.
The most accepted model is based on hydrochloroquinine, and involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization, which facilitates the aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Free cytotoxic heme accumulates in the parasites, causing their deaths.[c]

Imatinib Mesylate 伊馬替尼 甲磺酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imatinib
 

Imatinib, sold under the brand names Gleevec and Glivec, used in the treatment of multiple cancers, most notably Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myelogenous leukemia(CML).[1] Due in large part to the development of Gleevec and related drugs having a similar mechanism of action, the five year survival rate for people with chronic myeloid leukemia nearly doubled from 31% in 1993 (before Gleevec's 2001 FDA approval) to 59% for those diagnosed between 2003 and 2009.[2] Median survival for imatinib-treated people with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is nearly 5 years compared to 9 to 20 months in the pre-imatinib-era.[3]

Imipenem 亞胺培南
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imipenem

Imipenem (Primaxin) is an intravenous β-lactam antibiotic discovered by Merck scientists Burton Christensen, William Leanza, and Kenneth Wildonger in 1980.[1] It was the first member of the carbapenem class of antibiotics. Carbapenems are highly resistant to the β-lactamase enzymes produced by many multiple drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria,[2] thus play a key role in the treatment of infections not readily treated with other antibiotics.[3]

It was discovered via a lengthy trial-and-error search for a more stable version of the natural product thienamycin, which is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces cattleya. Thienamycin has antibacterial activity, but is unstable in aqueous solution, so impractical to administer to patients.[4]Imipenem has a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic and anaerobic, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.[5] It is particularly important for its activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterococcus species. It is not active against MRSA, however.

Irinotecan hydrochloride 伊立替康
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irinotecan

Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar, is a medication used for the treatment of cancer. Its main use is in colon cancer, in particular, in combination with other chemotherapy agents.

Irinotecan prevents DNA from unwinding by inhibition of topoisomerase 1.[1] In chemical terms, it is a semisynthetic molecule similar to the natural alkaloid camptothecin.

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[2] Irinotecan received accelerated approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996 and full approval in 1998.[3][4]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Irinotecan is activated by hydrolysis to SN-38, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. This is then inactivated by glucuronidation by uridine diphosphate glucoronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). The inhibition of topoisomerase I by the active metabolite SN-38 eventually leads to inhibition of both DNA replication and transcription. 

Isoconazole 異康唑
Isoconazol nitrate
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isoconazol
 

Isoconazole is an antifungal drug derived from imidazole that is used in external application to the skin and mucous membranes. It is usually present in the form of isoconazole nitrate.
Mechanism of action:
Isoconazole, like other imidazole derivatives, interacts with cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme systems, interfering with the metabolism of lanosterol (difficult 14-demethylation) leading to a decrease in ergosterol and, secondarily, to an accumulation Of anomalous sterols (14-alpha-methylated sterols). As ergosterol is much more important for the wall of fungi than for that of human cells, and because of the greater affinity of the former for azole, Selective action.2 The lack of ergosterol alters the permeability of the fungi membranes, leading to a disruption of the intracellular organelles and the ability to divide. Secondarily, the accumulation of anomalous sterols contributes to cell fragility and death. 

Lansoprazole 蘭索拉唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansoprazole
 

Lansoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) which inhibits the stomach's production of gastric acids. It is manufactured by a number of companies worldwide under several brand names. In the United States, it was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995.[1] Prevacid patent protection expired on November 10, 2009.[2][3] There is not evidence that its effectiveness is different than that of other PPIs.[4]

Lansoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) in the same pharmacologic class as omeprazole. Lansoprazole has been marketed for many years and is one of several PPIs available.[5] It is a racemic 1:1 mixture of the enantiomers dexlansoprazole (Dexilant, formerly named Kapidex) and levolansoprazole.[6] Dexlansoprazole is an enantiomerically pure active ingredient of a commercial drug as a result of the enantiomeric shift.

Lansoprazole's plasma elimination half-life (1.5 h) is not proportional to the duration of the drug's effects to the person (i.e. gastric acid suppression).[7] and the effects of the drug last for over 24 hours after it has been used for a day or more.[8] Lansoprazole, given nasogastrically, effectively controls intragastric pH and is an alternative to intravenous pantoprazole in people who are unable to swallow solid-dose formulations.[9]

Lapatinib Ditosylate 拉帕替尼 二甲苯磺酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapatinib
 

Lapatinib (INN), used in the form of lapatinib ditosylate (USAN) (trade names Tykerb and Tyverb) is an orally active drug for breast cancer and other solid tumours.[1] It is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interrupts the HER2/neu and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways.[2] It is used in combination therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer. It is used for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumors overexpress HER2 (ErbB2).[3]

A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades. The proteins are activated by adding a phosphate group to the protein (phosphorylation), a step that TKIs inhibit. TKIs are typically used as anticancer drugs. For example, they have substantially improved outcomes in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Latanoprost 拉坦前列腺素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latanoprost
 

Latanoprost eye solution is a medication administered into the eyes to control the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension by reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). It is a prostaglandin analogue (more specifically an analogue of prostaglandin F2α[1]) that lowers the pressure by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes through the uveoscleral tract.[2] Latanoprost is an isopropyl ester prodrug, meaning it is inactive until it is hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active acid.[3]
Mechanism of action[edit]Like tafluprost and travoprost, latanoprost is an ester prodrug that is activated to the free acid in the cornea. Also like the related drugs, latanoprost acid is an analog of prostaglandin F2α that acts as a selective agonist at the prostaglandin F receptor. Prostaglandins increase the sclera's permeability to aqueous fluid. So, an increase in prostaglandin activity increases outflow of aqueous fluid thus lowering intraocular pressure.[9][10]

Leflunomide 來氟米特
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leflunomide

Leflunomide (original brand name Arava) is an immunosuppressive disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD),[2] used in active moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. It is a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor that works by inhibiting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.[3]

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DHODHgene on chromosome 16. The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step, the ubiquinone-mediated oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. This protein is a mitochondrial protein located on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane(IMM).[1] Inhibitors of this enzyme are used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.[2]

Letrozole 來曲唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letrozole

Letrozole (INN, trade name Femara) is an oral non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer after surgery.
Estrogens are produced by the conversion of androgens through the activity of the aromatase enzyme. Estrogens then bind to an estrogen receptor, which causes cells to divide.
Letrozole is an aromatase inhibitor.
Letrozole prevents the aromatase from producing estrogens by competitive, reversible binding to the heme of its cytochrome P450 unit. The action is specific, and letrozole does not reduce production of mineralo- or corticosteroids.[citation needed]

Levonorgestrel 左炔諾孕酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levonorgestrel

Levonorgestrel is a manufactured hormone used in a number of birth control methods.[1] In pill form, sold under the brand name Plan B among others, it is useful within 120 hours as emergency birth control. It becomes less effective the longer after sex and only works before pregnancy has occurred.[1] It is also combined with an estrogen to make combined oral birth control pill.[2] Within an IUD, sold as Mirena among others, it is effective for long term prevention of pregnancy.[1] An implantable form of levonorgestrel is also available in some countries.[3]

Levonorgestrel is an estrane steroid derived from testosterone and is also known as 17α-ethynyl-18-methyl-19-nortestosterone or as 17α-ethynyl-18-methylestr-4-en-17β-ol-3-one. Levonorgestrel (levo=left) is one form of a steroid, norgestrel, that exists in two mirror image left and right forms (see Chirality (chemistry)). It is the hormonally active levorotatory enantiomer of the racemic mixture. It is a gonane progestin derived from 19-nortestosterone.[21]
Its in vitro relative binding affinities at human steroid hormone receptors are: 323% that of progesterone at the progesterone receptor, 58% that of testosterone at the androgen receptor, 17% that of aldosterone at the mineralocorticoid receptor, 7.5% that of cortisol at the glucocorticoid receptor, and <0.02% that of estradiol at the estrogen receptor.[22]
If taken together with drugs that induce the CYP3A4 cytochrome liver enzyme, levonorgestrel may be metabolized faster and may have lower efficacy.[citation needed]

Lidocaine 利多卡因
Lidocaine HCl
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidocaine


Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area and to treat ventricular tachycardia.[3][4] It can also be used for nerve blocks. Lidocaine mixed with a small amount of epinephrine is available to allow larger doses for numbing, and to make it last longer.[4] When used as an injectable, it typically begins working within four minutes and lasts for half an hour to three hours.[4][5] Lidocaine may also be applied directly to the skin for numbing.[4]

Mechanism of action[edit]
Lidocaine alters signal conduction in neurons by blocking the fast voltage-gated Na+ channels in the neuronal cell membrane responsible for signal propagation.[34] With sufficient blockage, the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron will not depolarize and will thus fail to transmit an action potential. This creates the anaesthetic effect by not merely preventing pain signals from propagating to the brain, but by stopping them before they begin. Careful titration allows for a high degree of selectivity in the blockage of sensory neurons, whereas higher concentrations also affect other modalities of neuron signaling.

The same principle applies for this drug's actions in the heart. Blocking sodium channels in the conduction system, as well as the muscle cells of the heart, raises the depolarization threshold, making the heart less likely to initiate or conduct early action potentials that may cause an arrhythmia.[35]

Limaprost Alfadex 利馬前列素 阿法環糊精
https://www.drugs.com/international/limaprost.html
CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service)
0088852-12-4
Chemical Formula : C22-H36-O5
Molecular Weight : 380
Therapeutic Categories : Vasodilator, Prostaglandin analogue.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostaglandin_analogue
Synthetic prostaglandin analogues are molecules which are manufactured to bind to a prostaglandin receptor.
Wider use of prostaglandin analogues is limited by unwanted side effects and their abortive potential.

Linezolid 利奈唑胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linezolid

Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Linezolid is active against most Gram-positive bacteria that cause disease, including streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[1] The main uses are infections of the skin and pneumoniaalthough it may be use for a variety of other infections..

The oxazolidinones are protein synthesis inhibitors: they stop the growth and reproduction of bacteria by disrupting translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins in the ribosome. Although its mechanism of action is not fully understood,[90] linezolid appears to work on the first step of protein synthesis, initiation, unlike most other protein synthesis inhibitors, which inhibit elongation.[3][54]

It does so by preventing the formation of the initiation complex, composed of the 30S and 50S subunits of the ribosome, tRNA, and mRNA. Linezolid binds to the 23S portion of the 50S subunit (the center of peptidyl transferase activity),[91] close to the binding sites of chloramphenicol, lincomycin, and other antibiotics. Due to this unique mechanism of action, cross-resistance between linezolid and other protein synthesis inhibitors is highly infrequent or nonexistent.[15][46]

Loxoprofen sodium hydrate 洛索丙芬鈉 水合物
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loxoprofen

Loxoprofen (INN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the propionic acid derivatives group, which also includes ibuprofen and naproxen among others. 

Mechanism of action[edit]
As most NSAIDs, loxoprofen is a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and works by reducing the synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid.

Lubiprostone 魯比前列酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lubiprostone

Lubiprostone (rINN, marketed under the trade name Amitiza among others) is a medicationused in the management of chronic idiopathic constipation, predominantly irritable bowel syndrome-associated constipation in women and opioid-induced constipation.

It was initially approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006. It is very expensive as of 2012.[1]

Mechanism of action[edit]
Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid derived from prostaglandin E1 that acts by specifically activating ClC-2 chloride channels on the apical aspect of gastrointestinal epithelial cells, producing a chloride-rich fluid secretion. These secretions soften the stool, increase motility, and promote spontaneous bowel movements (SBM).

Symptoms of constipation such as pain and bloating are usually improved within one week, and SBM may occur within one day.

Maxacalcitol Hydrate 馬沙骨化醇 水合物
https://www.medchemexpress.com/DataSheet/Maxacalcitol.html

CAS No.:  103909-75-7, Cat. No.:   HY-32339, MWt:     418.61
Formula:
C26H42O4, Purity : >98%, Solubility:     in DMSO > 10 mM
Mechanisms:  Pathways: Vitamin D Related; Target: VD/VDR
Biological Activity: Maxacalcitol (22-Oxacalcitriol) is non-calcemic vitamin D3 analog and ligand of VDR-like receptors.
IC50 value: Target:

Maxacalcitol (22-Oxacalcitriol)suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA expression in vitro and in vivo. Maxacalcitol exhibits similar effects to calcitriol in osteoblast-like cells. Maxacalcitol(22-Oxacalcitriol) inhibits tumor growth of osteosarcoma in vitro in combination with all-trans retinoic acid.

Meclofenamate Sodium 甲氯芬那酸鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meclofenamic_acid

Meclofenamic acid (meclofenamate sodium, brand Meclomen) is a drug used for joint, muscular pain, arthritis and dysmenorrhea.[1] It is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives (or fenamate) class of NSAID drugs and was approved by the FDA in 1980.[2] Like other members of the class, it is a COX inhibitor and prevents formation of prostaglandins.[3]

Scientists led by Claude Winder from Parke-Davis invented meclofenamate sodium in 1964, along with fellow members of the class, mefenamic acid in 1961 and flufenamic acid in 1963.[4]:718

Patents on the drug expired in 1985[5]:295 and several generics were introduced in the US, but as of July 2015 only Mylan still sold it.[6][7]

It is not widely used in humans as it has a high rate (30-60%) rate of gastrointestinal side effects.[8]:310 As of 2015 the cost for a typical course of medication in the United States is 50 to 100 USD.[9]

Mefenamic Acid 甲芬那酸
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mefenamic_acid

Mefenamic acid is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives (or fenamate) class of NSAID drugs, and is used to treat mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain, and is sometimes used to prevent migraines associated with menstruation.[1][2] It is not widely used in the United States due to its side effects.[3][4]:334

Its name derives from its systematic name, dimethylphenylaminobenzoic acid. It was discovered and brought to market by Parke-Davis in the 1960s under brandnames Ponstan, Ponstan Forte, Ponalar, Ponstyl, and Ponstel. It became generic in the 1980s and is available worldwide under many brand names.[5] As of 2015 the cost for a typical course of medication in the United States is more than 200 USD.[6]

Melitracen hydrochloride 米拉明
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melitracen

Melitracen (Adaptol, Dixeran, Melixeran, Thymeol, Trausabun) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) marketed in Europe and Japan by Lundbeck and Takeda, respectively, for the treatment of depression and anxiety.[1][2][3][4] In addition to single drug preparations, it is also available as Deanxit, a combination product containing both melitracen and flupentixol.[5][6][7][8]

The pharmacology of melitracen has not been properly investigated and is largely unknown, but it is likely to act in a similar manner to other TCAs. Indeed, melitracen is reported to have imipramine and amitriptyline-like effects and efficacy against depression and anxiety, though with improved tolerability and a somewhat faster onset of action.[9][10]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tricyclic_antidepressant#PharmacologyThe majority of the TCAs act primarily as serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) by blocking the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), respectively, which results in an elevation of the synaptic concentrations of these neurotransmitters, and therefore an enhancement of neurotransmission.[20][21] Notably, with the sole exception of amineptine, the TCAs have negligible affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), and therefore have no efficacy as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (DRIs).[20] Both serotonin and norepinephrine have been highly implicated in depression and anxiety, and it has been shown that facilitation of their activity has beneficial effects on these mental disorders.[22]

Meloxicam 美洛昔康
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meloxicam

Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and fever reducer effects. It is a derivative of oxicam, closely related to piroxicam, and falls in the enolic acid group of NSAIDs.[2] It was developed by Boehringer-Ingelheim. Meloxicam starts to relieve pain about 30–60 minutes after administration.[3]

Mechanism of action[edit]
Main article: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Meloxicam blocks cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for converting arachidonic acid into prostaglandin H2—the first step in the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are mediators of inflammation. Meloxicam has been shown, especially at its low therapeutic doses, selectively to inhibit COX-2 over COX-1.[1]

Meropenem 美羅培南
Meropenem and Sodium Carbonate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meropenem

Meropenem is an ultra-broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of infections. It is a β-lactam and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenem, similar to imipenem and ertapenem.

Meropenem was developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and patented in 1983.[1][2][3] It gained US FDA approval in July 1996. It penetrates well into many tissues and body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, bile, heart valve, lung, and peritoneal fluid.[4] It was initially marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Merrem.

Mechanism of action[edit]
Meropenem is bactericidal except against Listeria monocytogenes, where it is bacteriostatic. It inhibits bacterial wall synthesis like other β-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to other beta-lactams, it is highly resistant to degradation by β-lactamases or cephalosporinases. In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or resistance to diffusion across the bacterial outer membrane.[5] Unlike imipenem, it is stable to dehydropeptidase-1, so can be given without cilastatin.

Metaxalone 美他沙酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaxalone

Metaxalone (marketed by King Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Skelaxin) is a muscle relaxant used to relax muscles and relieve pain caused by strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, but it may be due to general central nervous system depression. It is considered to be a moderately strong muscle relaxant, with relatively low incidence of side effects. Skelaxin is available in an 800 mg scored tablet. Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, drowsiness and CNS side effects, such as dizziness, headache, and irritability.

The metabolism of metaxalone involves the liver cytochrome P450 system. Based on the information in the labeling, patients receiving metaxalone therapy and physicians prescribing metaxalone are directed to take precaution when coadministering it with other medications involving the P450 system.[1][2]

Because of potential for side effects, this drug is considered high risk in the elderly. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is 100 to 200 USD.[3]

Methocarbamol 甲硫氨醇
Methocarbamol DC 90%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methocarbamol

Methocarbamol is a central muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle spasms. Under the trade name Robaxin, it is marketed by Actient Pharmaceuticals in the United States and Pfizer in Canada. The mechanism of action of methocarbamol is currently unknown, but may involve the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase.[2] The muscle relaxant effects of methocarbamol are largely attributed to central depressant effects;[3] however, peripheral effects of methocarbamol to prolong muscle refractory period have also been reported.

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride 哌甲酯鹽酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methylphenidate
 

Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine[3] and piperidineclasses that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity.

Medical use began in 1960; the drug has become increasingly prescribed since the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD became more widely accepted.[4][5] Between 2007 and 2012 methylphenidate prescriptions increased by 50% in the United Kingdom and in 2013 global methylphenidate consumption increased to 2.4 billion doses, a 66% increase from the year before. The United States continues to account for more than 80% of global consumption.[6][7]

ADHD and other similar conditions are believed to be linked to sub-performance of the dopamine and norepinephrine functions in the brain, primarily in the prefrontal cortex, responsible for executive function (e.g., reasoning, inhibiting behaviors, organizing, problem solving, planning, etc.).[8][9] Methylphenidate's mechanism of action involves the inhibition of catecholaminereuptake, primarily as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts by blocking the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter, leading to increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine within the synaptic cleft. This effect in turn leads to increased neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine.[10] Methylphenidate is also a weak 5HT1Areceptor agonist.[11]

Metoprolol Succinate 琥珀酸美托洛爾
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metoprolol

Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a selective β1 receptor blocker medication.[3] It is used to treat high blood pressure, chest pain due to poor blood flow to the heart, and a number of conditions involving an abnormally fast heart rate. It is also used to prevent further heart problems after myocardial infarction and to prevent headaches in those with migraines.[3]

It comes in formulations that can be taken by mouth or given intravenously. The medication is often taken twice a day. There is an extended release formulation that is once per day. Metoprolol may be combined with hydrochlorothiazide in a single tablet.[3]

Common side effects include trouble sleeping, feeling tired, feeling faint, and abdominal discomfort.[3]Large doses may cause serious toxicity.[4][5] Risk in pregnancy has not been ruled out.[3][6] It appears to be safe in breastfeeding.[7] Greater care is required with use in those with liver problems or asthma.[3] If stopped this should be done slowly to decrease the risk of further health problems.[3]

Metoprolol was first made in 1969.[8] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[9] It is available as a generic drug.[3] In 2013, metoprolol was the 19th most prescribed medication in the United States.[10]

Miconazole Nitrate 咪康唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miconazole

Miconazole, sold under the brand name Monistat among others, is a antifungal medication used to treat ring worm, pityriasis versicolor, and yeast infections of the skin or vagina.[1] It is applied to the skin or vagina as a cream or ointment.[1]

Common side effects include itchiness or irritation of the area in which it was applied.[1] Use in pregnancy is believed to be safe for the baby.[2] Miconazole is in the imidazole family of medications. It works by decreasing the ability of fungi to make ergosterol, an important part its cell membrane.[1]

Miconazole was patented in 1968 and approved for medical use in 1971.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4]

Miconazole, itraconazole, and clotrimazole work in a different way, inhibiting synthesis of ergosterol from lanosterol by interfering with 14α-demethylase . Ergosterol is a smaller molecule than lanosterol; it is synthesized by combining two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a 15-carbon-long terpenoid, into lanosterol, which has 30 carbons. Then, two methyl groups are removed, making ergosterol. The "azole" class of antifungal agents inhibit the enzyme that performs these demethylation steps in the biosynthetic pathway between lanosterol and ergosterol.

Mifepristone 米非司酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mifepristone

Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used with misoprostol to bring about an abortion.[1] This combination is more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy. It is also effective in the second trimester of pregnancy.[2][3] Two weeks after use effectiveness should be verified. It is taken by mouth.[1]

Pharmacology[edit]
It is a synthetic, steroidal antiprogestogen (IC50 = 0.025 nM for the PR), as well as an antiglucocorticoid (IC50 = 2.2 nM for the GR) and antiandrogen (IC50 = 10 nM for the AR) to a much lesser extent.[32] It is a 19-norsteroid with substitutions at positions C11 and C17 (17β-hydroxy-11β-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-17α-(1-propynyl)estra-4,9-dien-3-one), which antagonizes cortisol action competitively at the receptor level.[33]Mifepristone is a low-efficacy partial agonist of the progesterone receptor. It is also a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist to a lesser extent.

In the presence of progesterone, mifepristone acts as a competitive progesterone receptor antagonist (in the absence of progesterone, mifepristone acts as a partial agonist). Mifepristone is a 19-nor steroid with a bulky p-(dimethylamino)phenyl substituent above the plane of the molecule at the 11β-position responsible for inducing or stabilizing an inactive receptor conformation and a hydrophobic 1-propynyl substituent below the plane of the molecule at the 17α-position that increases its progesterone receptor binding affinity.[34][35][36]

Miltefosine 米替福新
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miltefosine

Miltefosine, sold under the trade name Impavido among others, is a medication mainly used to treat leishmaniasis and free-living amoeba infections such as Naegleria fowleri.[1] This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types.[3] It may be used together with liposomal amphotericin B or paromomycin.[4] It is taken by mouth.[3]

Common side effects include vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, headaches, and decreased kidney function. More severe side effects may include Stevens-Johnson syndrome or low blood platelets. Use during pregnancy appears to cause harm to the baby and use during breastfeeding is not recommended. How it works is not entirely clear.[1]

Miltefosine was first made in the early 1980s and studied as a treatment for cancer.[5] A few years later it was found to be useful for leishmaniasis and was approved for this use in 2002 in India.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[7] In the developing world a course of treatment costs 65 to 150 USD. In the developed world treatment may be 10 to 50 times greater.[4]

Mechanism of action[edit]
Miltefosine primarily acts on Leishmania by affecting the species promastigote and amastigote stages.[23] Miltefosine exerts its activity by interacting with lipids, inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase and causing apoptosis-like cell death.[24] This may affect membrane integrity and mitochondrial function of the parasite.

Misoprostol 米索前列醇
Misoprostol 1 HPMC Dispersion
Misoprostol-HPMC 1% Dispersion
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misoprostol

Misoprostol, sold under the brandname Cytotec among others, is a medication used to start labor, cause an abortion, prevent and treat stomach ulcers, and treat postpartum bleeding due to poor contraction of the uterus.[1] For abortions it is often used with mifepristone or methotrexate.[2] By itself effectiveness for this purpose is between 66% and 90%.[3] It is taken either by mouth, under the tongue, or placed in the vagina.[2][4]

Common side effects include diarrhea and abdominal pain. It is pregnancy category X meaning that it is known to result in negative outcomes for the baby if taken during pregnancy. Uterine rupture may occur. It is a prostaglandin analogue — specifically, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1).[1]

Misoprostol was developed in 1973.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.36 to 2.00 USD a dose.[7] A months supply to treat stomach ulcers in the United States is between 100 and 200 USD.[8] The same costs between 30 and 55 EUR in Europe.[9]

Montelukast Sodium 孟魯司特鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montelukast

Montelukast (trade name Singulair) is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies.[2][3] Montelukast comes as a tablet, a chewable tablet, flash tablet and granules to take by mouth.[4] Montelukast is usually taken once a day with or without food.[4] Montelukast is a CysLT1 antagonist; it blocks the action of leukotriene D4 (and secondary ligands LTC4 and LTE4) on the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor CysLT1 in the lungs and bronchial tubes by binding to it. This reduces the bronchoconstriction otherwise caused by the leukotriene and results in less inflammation.

Because of its mechanism of action, it is not useful in the treatment of acute asthma attacks.

Another leukotriene receptor antagonist is zafirlukast (Accolate). Zileuton (Zyflo), an asthma drug, blocks leukotriene synthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme of the eicosanoid synthesis pathway.[5]

The Mont in Montelukast stands for Montreal, the place where Merck developed the drug.[6]

Mupirocin 莫匹羅星
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mupirocin

Mupirocin, sold under the brand name Bactroban among others, is an antibiotic useful against superficial skin infections such as impetigo or folliculitis.[1][2] It may also be used to get rid of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) when present in the nose without symptoms.[1] Due to concerns of developing resistance, use for greater than ten days is not recommended.[2] It is used as a cream or ointment applied to the skin.[1]

Common side effects include itchiness and rash at the site of application, headache, and nausea. Long term use may result in increased growth of fungi. Use during pregnancy and breastfeeding appear to be safe.[1] Mupirocin is in the carbolic acid class of medications.[3]It works by blocking the making of protein by the bacterial which usually results in bacterial death.[1]

Mupirocin was initially isolated in 1971 from Pseudomonas fluorescens.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5]

Mechanism of action[edit]
Mupirocin reversibly binds to the isoleucyl t-RNA synthetase in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. DNA and cell wall formation are also negatively impacted to a lesser degree.[15] The inhibition of RNA synthesis was shown to be a protective mechanism in response to a lack of one amino acid, isoleucine.[16] In vivo studies in Escherichia coli demonstrated that pseudomonic acid inhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase (IleRS).[8] This mechanism of action is shared with furanomycin, an analog of isoleucine.[17]

Mycophenolate mofetil 黴酚酸酯
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycophenolic_acid

Mycophenolic acid, less accurately called mycophenolate, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It inhibits an enzyme needed for the growth of T cells and B cells. It was initially marketed as the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to improve oral bioavailability. More recently, the salt mycophenolate sodium has also been introduced. Mycophenolate mofetil is marketed under the trade name CellCept and mycophenolate sodium as Myfortic.

Discovered by an Italian medical scientist Bartolomeo Gosio in 1893, mycophenolic acid was the first antibiotic to be synthesised in pure and crystalline form. But its medical application was forgotten until two American scientists C.L. Alsberg and O.M. Black resynthesised it in 1912, and gave its chemical name. It was eventually found to be a broad-spectrum acting drug having antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer, and antipsoriasis properties.[3] The clinically usable drug Cellcept was developed by South African geneticist Anthony Allison and his wife Elsie M. Eugui. It was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on 3 May 1995 for use in kidney transplantation.[4]

Naftopidil 萘夫地爾
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naftopidil

Naftopidil (INN, marketed under the brand name Flivas) is a drug used in benign prostatic hypertrophy which acts as a selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist or alpha blocker.[1]

Nicametate Citrate 枸橼酸烟胺乙酯https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Nicametate_citrate#section=Top

Chemical Names: Nicametate citrate; Euclidan
Molecular Formula: C18H26N2O9,
Molecular Weight: 414.411 g/mol
Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.

Nicotinamide
煙酰胺

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotinamide

Nicotinamide, (/ˌnɪkəˈtɪnəmaɪd/) also known as niacinamide,[2][3] NAA, and nicotinic amide, is the amide of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3 / niacin).[2][3] Nicotinamide is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B group. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted to nicotinamide in vivo, and, though the two are identical in their vitamin functions, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological and toxic effects of niacin, which occur incidental to niacin's conversion. Thus nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing,[4] although nicotinamide may be toxic to the liver at doses exceeding 3 g/day for adults.[5] In cells, niacin is incorporated into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), although the pathways for nicotinic acid amide and nicotinic acid are very similar. NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions.[6] Commercial production of niacin and niacinamide (several thousand tons annually) is by hydrolysis or aminolysis of 3-cyanopyridine (nicotinonitrile).[7]
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one known cause of nicotinamide deficiency.

Olopatadine HCl 奧洛他定
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olopatadine

Olopatadine hydrochloride is an antihistamine (as well as anticholinergic and mast cell stabilizer), sold as a prescription eye drop manufactured by Alcon in one of three strengths: 0.7% solution or Pazeo in the US, 0.2% solution or Pataday (also called Patanol S in some countries), and 0.1% or Patanol (also called Opatanol in some countries). It is used to treat itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergies). A decongestant nasal spray formulation is sold as Patanase, which was approved by the FDA on April 15, 2008.[1] It is also available as an oral tablet in Japan under the tradename Allelock, manufactured by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo.[2]

It should not be used to treat irritation caused by contact lenses. The usual dose for Patanol is 1 drop in each affected eye 2 times per day, with 6 to 8 hours between doses. Both Pazeo and Pataday are dosed 1 drop in each eye daily.

There is potential for Olopatadine as a treatment modality for steroid rebound (red skin syndrome).[3]

Olopatadine was developed by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo.[4]

Omeprazole 奧美拉唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omeprazole

Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.[1] It is also used to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people who are at high risk.[1] It can be taken by mouth or injected into a vein.[1][4]

Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and increased intestinal gas. Serious side effects may include Clostridium difficile colitis, an increased risk of pneumonia, an increased risk of bone fractures, and the potential of masking stomach cancer. It is unclear if it is safe for use in pregnancy. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor and as such blocks the release of stomach acid.[1]

Omeprazole was discovered in 1979.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1]

Ondansetron HCl 昂丹司瓊
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ondansetron

Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.[1] It is also useful in gastroenteritis.[2][3] It has little effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness.[4] It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle or into a vein.[1]

Common side effects include diarrhea, constipation, headache, sleepiness, and itchiness. Serious side effects include QT prolongation and severe allergic reaction. It appears to be safe during pregnancy but has not been well studied in this group. It is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.[1] It does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors.[5]

Ondansetron was first used medically in 1990.[6] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[7] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost of the injectable form in the developing world is about 0.10 to 0.76 USD per dose.[8] In the United States it costs about 1.37 USD per tablet.[1]

Orciprenaline Sulphate 奧西那林
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orciprenaline

Orciprenaline (INN), also known as metaproterenol (USAN), is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of asthma.[1][2] Orciprenaline is a moderately selective β2 adrenergic receptor agonist that stimulates receptors of the smooth muscle in the lungs, uterus, and vasculature supplying skeletal muscle, with minimal or no effect on α adrenergic receptors. The pharmacologic effects of β adrenergic agonist drugs, such as orciprenaline, are at least in part attributable to stimulation through β adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. Increased cAMP levels are associated with relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from many cells, especially from mast cells.

Orlistat 奧利司他
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlistat

Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity. It is marketed as a prescription drug under the trade name Xenical by Roche in most countries, and is sold over-the-counter as Alli[2] by GlaxoSmithKline in the United Kingdom and the United States.[3] Its primary function is preventing the absorption of fats from the human diet by acting as a lipase inhibitor, thereby reducing caloric intake. It is intended for use in conjunction with a healthcare provider-supervised reduced-calorie diet.[4]

Orlistat is the saturated derivative of lipstatin, a potent natural inhibitor of pancreatic lipases isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces toxytricini.[5] However, due to its relative simplicity and stability, orlistat was chosen over lipstatin for development as an anti-obesity drug.[6]

Oteracil Potassium 氧嗪酸鉀https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil


Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil
The combination drug tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (trade name Teysuno, and TS-1 in Japan[1]), also known as S-1,[2] is used for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.[3] It is labelled for use in combination with cisplatin in many European countries, and for head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, non–small-cell lung, breast, pancreatic, and biliary tract cancers in several countries in Asia.[4]:213 It has not been approved by the FDA.[4]:213

It is also being developed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.[5] and has activity in esophageal,(Perry Chapter 33) breast,[citation needed] cervical,[citation needed] and colorectal cancer.[6]

Mechanism of action[edit]
Tegafur is the actual chemotherapeutic agent. It is a prodrug of the active substance fluorouracil (5-FU).

Gimeracil inhibits the degradation of fluorouracil by reversibly blocking a dehydrogenase enzyme. This results in higher 5-FU levels and a prolonged half-life of the substance.

Oteracil mainly stays in the gut because of its low permeability, where it reduces the production of 5-FU by blocking the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. Lower 5-FU levels in the gut result in a lower gastrointestinal toxicity.

Oxazolam 噁唑崙
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxazolam

Oxazolam is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative. It has anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is a prodrug for desmethyldiazepam.[1]

Oxethazaine 奧昔卡因
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxetacaine

Oxetacaine (INN, also known as oxethazaine) is a potent local anesthetic. It is administered orally (usually in combination with an antacid) for the relief of pain associated with peptic ulcer disease or esophagitis. It is also used topically in the management of hemorrhoid pain. Oral oxetacaine preparations are available in several countries, including India, South Africa, Japan and Brazil, but not the United States.
Unlike most local anesthetics, oxetacaine does not break down under strongly acidic conditions.[1]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_anesthetic
Mechanism of action[edit]
All LAs are membrane-stabilizing drugs; they reversibly decrease the rate of depolarization and repolarization of excitable membranes (like nociceptors). Though many other drugs also have membrane-stabilizing properties, not all are used as LAs (propranolol, for example). LA drugs act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium-specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane, in particular the so-called voltage-gated sodium channels. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited. The receptor site is thought to be located at the cytoplasmic (inner) portion of the sodium channel. Local anesthetic drugs bind more readily to sodium channels in an activated state, thus onset of neuronal blockade is faster in rapidly firing neurons. This is referred to as state-dependent blockade.

LAs are weak bases and are usually formulated as the hydrochloride salt to render them water soluble. At a pH equal to the protonated base's pKa, the protonated (ionized) and un-protonated (unionized) forms of the molecule exist in equal molar amounts, but only the un-protonated base diffuses readily across cell membranes. Once inside the cell, the local anesthetic will be in equilibrium, with the formation of the protonated (ionized form), which does not readily pass back out of the cell. This is referred to as "ion-trapping". In the protonated form, the molecule binds to the LA binding site on the inside of the ion channel near the cytoplasmic end. Most LAs work on the internal surface of the membrane - the drug has to penetrate the cell membrane, which is achieved best in the non-ionized form.

Paclitaxel 紫杉醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer. It is given by injection into a vein.[2] There is also an albumin bound formulation.[2]

Common side effects include hair loss, bone marrow suppression, numbness, allergic reactions, muscle pains, and diarrhea. Other serious side effects include heart problems, increased risk of infection, and lung inflammation. Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby.[2] Paclitaxel is in the taxane family of medications.[3] It works by interference with the normal function of microtubules during cell division.[2]

Paclitaxel was first isolated in 1971 from the Pacific yew and approved for medical use in 1993.[4][5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 7.06 to 13.48 USD per 100 mg vial.[7] This amount in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 66.85 pounds.[8] It is now manufactured by cell culture.[5]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs that target tubulin. Paclitaxel-treated cells have defects in mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cell division. Unlike other tubulin-targeting drugs such as colchicine that inhibit microtubule assembly, paclitaxel stabilizes the microtubule polymer and protects it from disassembly. Chromosomes are thus unable to achieve a metaphase spindle configuration. This blocks the progression of mitosis and prolonged activation of the mitotic checkpoint triggers apoptosis or reversion to the G-phase of the cell cycle without cell division.[18][19]

The ability of paclitaxel to inhibit spindle function is generally attributed to its suppression of microtubule dynamics,[20] but recent studies have demonstrated that suppression of dynamics occurs at concentrations lower than those needed to block mitosis. At the higher therapeutic concentrations, paclitaxel appears to suppress microtubule detachment from centrosomes, a process normally activated during mitosis.[21]Paclitaxel binds to beta-tubulin subunits of microtubules.[22]

p-Aminomethylbenzoic acid 對氨基甲基苯甲酸https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminomethylbenzoic_acid

Aminomethylbenzoic acid (more precisely, 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid or p-aminomethylbenzoic acid, PAMBA) is an antifibrinolytic.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifibrinolytic
Antifibrinolytics, such as aminocaproic acid (ε-aminocaproic acid) and tranexamic acid are used as inhibitors of fibrinolysis.[1] These lysine-like drugs interfere with the formation of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin from its precursor plasminogen by plasminogen activators (primarily t-PA and u-PA) which takes place mainly in lysine rich areas on the surface of fibrin. These drugs block the binding sites of the enzymes or plasminogen respectively and thus stop plasmin formation.

They are used in menorrhagia and bleeding tendency due to various causes. Their application may be beneficial in patients with hyperfibrinolysis because they arrest bleeding rapidly if the other components of the haemostatic system are not severely affected. This may help to avoid the use of blood products such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with its associated risks of infections or anaphylactic reactions.

In 2010, the CRASH-2 trial showed that the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid safely reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients.[2]

The antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin was abandoned after identification of major side effects, especially on kidney.

The indication for use of antifibrinolytic drugs is made with various methods. The most rapid and suitable one is thromboelastometry (TEM) in whole blood, which is even possible in patients on heparin. With various assays, an enhanced fibrinolysis becomes visible in the curve signature (TEMogram) and from the calculated values, e.g. the maximum lysis parameter. A special test for the identification of increased fibrinolysis (APTEM) compares the TEM in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. In severe cases of activated fibrinolysis, this assay confirms the syndrome already in less than 15 min during the early phases of clot formation [3]

Paricalcitol 帕立骨化醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paricalcitol

Paricalcitol (chemically it is 19-nor-1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D2. Marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the trade name Zemplar) is a drug used for the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone) associated with chronic renal failure. It is an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol, the active form of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
Mechanism of action[edit]
Like 1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol, paricalcitol acts as an agonist at the vitamin D receptor and thereby lowers parathyroid hormone levels in the blood.[1]

Pazopanib Hydrochloride 鹽酸帕唑帕尼
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pazopanib

Pazopanib (trade name Votrient) is a potent and selective multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks tumour growth and inhibits angiogenesis. It has been approved for renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma by numerous regulatory administrations worldwide.[3][4][5][6]
Mechanism of action[edit]
It is a multikinase inhibitor, with c-KIT, FGFR, PDGFR and VEGFR being amongst the inhibited enzymes.[2][12][15][16][17][18]

Pemetrexed Disodium Hemipentahydrate 培美曲塞半水合二鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pemetrexed
 

Pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) is a chemotherapy drug manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company. Its indications are the treatment of pleural mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Pemetrexed is chemically similar to folic acid and is in the class of chemotherapy drugs called folate antimetabolites. It works by inhibiting three enzymes used in purine and pyrimidine synthesis—thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase[16][17](GARFT). By inhibiting the formation of precursor purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, pemetrexed prevents the formation of DNA and RNA, which are required for the growth and survival of both normal cells and cancer cells.

Pentobarbital Sodium 戊巴比妥鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentobarbital

Pentobarbital (US English) or pentobarbitone (UK English) is a short-acting barbiturate. Pentobarbital can occur as both a free acid and as salts of elements such as sodium and calcium. The free acid is only slightly soluble in water and ethanol.[1][2]

One brand name for this drug is Nembutal, coined by John S. Lundy, who started using it in 1930, from the structural formula of the sodium salt—Na (sodium) + ethyl + methyl + butyl + al (common suffix for barbiturates).[3] Nembutal is trademarked and manufactured by the Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck, and is the only injectable form of pentobarbital approved for sale in the United States.[4]

In high doses, pentobarbital causes death by respiratory arrest. In the United States, the drug has been used for executions of convicted criminals. Lundbeck (one of many manufacturers) does not permit its sale to prisons or corrections departments to carry out the death penalty.[5]
Mechanism of action[edit]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbiturate#Mechanism_of_action
Barbiturates act as positive allosteric modulators, and at higher doses, as agonists of GABAA receptors.[20] GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Barbiturates bind to the GABAA receptor at multiple homologous transmembrane pockets located at subunit interfaces,[21] which are binding sites distinct from GABA itself and also distinct from the benzodiazepine binding site. Like benzodiazepines, barbiturates potentiate the effect of GABA at this receptor. In addition to this GABAergic effect, barbiturates also block AMPA and kainate receptors, subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptor. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Taken together, the findings that barbiturates potentiate inhibitory GABAA receptors and inhibit excitatory AMPA receptors can explain the superior CNS-depressant effects of these agents to alternative GABA potentiating agents such as benzodiazepines and quinazolinones. At higher concentration, they inhibit the Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate via an effect on P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels.[22] Barbiturates produce their pharmacological effects by increasing the duration of chloride ion channel opening at the GABAA receptor (pharmacodynamics: This increases the efficacy of GABA), whereas benzodiazepines increase the frequency of the chloride ion channel opening at the GABAA receptor (pharmacodynamics: This increases the potency of GABA). The direct gating or opening of the chloride ion channel is the reason for the increased toxicity of barbiturates compared to benzodiazepines in overdose.[23][24]

Further, barbiturates are relatively non-selective compounds that bind to an entire superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, of which the GABAAreceptor channel is only one of several representatives. This superfamily of ion channels includes the neuronal nACh receptor channel, the 5-HT3receptor channel, and the glycine receptor channel. However, while GABAA receptor currents are increased by barbiturates (and other general anaesthetics), ligand-gated ion channels that are predominantly permeable for cationic ions are blocked by these compounds. For example, neuronal nAChR channels are blocked by clinically relevant anaesthetic concentrations of both thiopental and pentobarbital.[25] Such findings implicate (non-GABA-ergic) ligand-gated ion channels, e.g. the neuronal nAChR channel, in mediating some of the (side) effects of barbiturates.[26]This is the mechanism responsible for the (mild to moderate) anesthetic effect of barbiturates in high doses when used in anesthetic concentration

Phenylephrine bitartrate 去氧腎上腺素 酒石酸鹽
Phenylephrine HCl
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenylephrine
 

Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, and to increase blood pressure. Phenylephrine is marketed as an alternative for the decongestant pseudoephedrine, although clinical trials show phenylephrine, taken orally at the recommended dose, to be no more effective than placebo for allergy relief.[1][2] Phenylephrine can also cause a decrease in heart rate through reflex bradycardia.[3]

Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride 苯丙醇胺https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenylpropanolamine

Phenylpropanolamine (BAN and INN; PPA, β-hydroxyamphetamine), also known as the stereoisomers norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, and cathine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which is used as a stimulant, decongestant, and anorectic agent.[1] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary medicine, it is used to control urinary incontinence in dogs under trade names Propalin and Proin.

In the United States, PPA is no longer sold due to a purported increased risk of stroke in younger women. In a few countries in Europe, however, it is still available either by prescription or sometimes over-the-counter. In Canada, it was withdrawn from the market on 31 May 2001.[2] In India human use of PPA and its formulations was banned on 10 February 2011,[3] but the ban was overturned by the judiciary in September 2011.[4]Pharmacology[edit]
Phenylpropanolamine acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptor and beta-adrenergic receptor agonist as well as a dopamine receptor D1 partial agonist.[5]

Many sympathetic hormones and neurotransmitters are based on the phenethylamine skeleton, and function generally in "fight or flight" type responses, such as increasing heart rate, blood pressure, dilating the pupils, increased energy, drying of mucous membranes, increased sweating, and a significant number of additional effects.

Phenyltoloxamine Citrate 苯基托沙胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenyltoloxamine

Phenyltoloxamine is an antihistamine with sedative and analgesic effects. It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents and an anticholinergic.
Common use[edit]
Phenyltoloxamine is widely used in preparations as an enhancing agent for some analgesics and antitussives (acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, codeine, hydrocodone). It is widely used in certain parts of the world as cough suppressant usually with codeine, and sometimes by itself or in addition to dextromethorphan as it, like diphenhydramine, possesses antitussive action of its own and is particularly useful in semi-productive coughs because of its moderate drying action.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antihistamine
An antihistamine is a type of pharmaceutical drug that opposes the activity of histamine receptors in the body.[1] Antihistamines are subclassified according to the histamine receptor that they act upon: the two largest classes of antihistamines are H1-antihistamines and H2-antihistamines. Antihistamines that target the histamine H1-receptor are used to treat allergic reactions in the nose (e.g., itching, runny nose, and sneezing) as well as for insomnia. They are sometimes also used to treat motion sickness or vertigo caused by problems with the inner ear. Antihistamines that target the histamine H2-receptor are used to treat gastric acid conditions (e.g., peptic ulcers and acid reflux). H1-antihistamines work by binding to histamine H1 receptors in mast cells, smooth muscle, and endothelium in the body as well as in the tuberomammillary nucleus in the brain; H2-antihistamines bind to histamine H2 receptors in the upper gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the stomach.

Pipethanate Ethobromide
http://www.druginfosys.com/drug.aspx?drugcode=2164&type=1#Shortcuts

Overview
Pipethanate ethobromide is an antimuscarinic with actions similar to those of atropine.
Categories
4 Antidotes and other substances used in poisonings
4.2 Specific antidotes
4.2.3 Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning
17 Gastrointestinal drugs
17.5 Antispasmodics

Side Effects
The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Pipethanate ethobromide, which give rise to further complications include Deaths.
The signs and symptoms that are produced after the acute overdosage of Pipethanate ethobromide include Nausea, Vomiting, Confusion, Hallucinations, Ataxia, CNS stimulation, Incoordination, Rashes, Paranoid psychosis, Increased respiration rate, Excitement.

Potassium Cresolsulfonate 煤溜油酚磺酸鉀http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_CN_CB11104948.htm

Pramoxine HCl 普莫林
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pramocaine

Pramocaine (INN and BAN, also known as pramoxine or pramoxine HCI) is a topical anesthetic discovered at Abbott Laboratories in 1953[1] and used as an antipruritic. During research and development, pramocaine hydrochloride stood out among a series of alkoxy aryl alkamine ethers as an especially good topical local anesthetic agent.[1] Pharmacologic study revealed it to be potent and of low acute and subacute toxicity, well tolerated by most mucous membranes and of a low sensitizing index in humans.[1] Like other local anesthetics, pramocaine decreases the permeability of neuronal membranes to sodium ions, blocking both initiation and conduction of nerve impulses. Depolarization and repolarization of excitable neural membranes is thus inhibited, leading to numbness.
Use[edit]
Topical anesthetics are used to relieve pain and itching caused by conditions such as sunburn or other minor burns, insect bites or stings, poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, and minor cuts and scratches.[2] The popular itch creams Gold Bond and some forms of calamine lotion use pramocaine hydrochloride to numb sensitive skin, as does the pain relief variant of Neosporin and some formulations of Sarna. The hydrochloride salt form of pramocaine is water-soluble.
Pramocaine and dibucaine are also common ingredients in over the counter hemorrhoid preparations.

Pravastatin Sodium 普伐他汀鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pravastatin
 

Pravastatin (marketed as Pravachol or Selektine) is a member of the drug class of statins, used in combination with diet, exercise, and weight loss for lowering cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular disease.
Medical uses[edit]
Pravastatin is primarily used for the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease.[2] It is recommended to be used only after other measures, such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction, have not improved cholesterol levels.[2]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Pravastatin acts as a lipoprotein-lowering drug through two pathways. In the major pathway, pravastatin inhibits the function of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. As a reversible competitive inhibitor, pravastatin sterically hinders the action of HMG-CoA reductase by occupying the active site of the enzyme. Taking place primarily in the liver, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the rate-limiting step of the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. Pravastatin also inhibits the synthesis of very-low-density lipoproteins, which are the precursor to low-density lipoproteins (LDL). These reductions increase the number of cellular LDL receptors, thus LDL uptake increases, removing it from the bloodstream.[7] Overall, the result is a reduction in circulating cholesterol and LDL. A minor reduction in triglycerides and an increase in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are common.

Prazosin Hydrochloride 哌唑嗪鹽酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prazosin

Prazosin, trade names Minipress, Vasoflex, Lentopres and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[2][3] It is an α1-blocker which acts as an inverse agonist at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors.[4] These receptors are found on vascular smooth muscle, where they are responsible for the vasoconstrictive action of norepinephrine.[3] They are also found throughout the central nervous system.[5] As of 2013, prazosin is off-patent in the US, and the FDA has approved at least one generic manufacturer.

Probucol 普羅布考
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probucol
 

Probucol is an anti-hyperlipidemic drug[1] initially developed in the treatment of coronary artery disease.
However, clinical trials were stopped after it was found that it may lower HDL in patients with a previous history of heart disease.
Probucol was initially developed in the 1970s by a chemical company to maximize airplane tire longevity. Probucol is associated with QT interval prolongation.
Mechanism[edit]
Probucol lowers the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream by increasing the rate of LDL catabolism. Additionally, probucol may inhibit cholesterol synthesis and delay cholesterol absorption.[2] Probucol is a powerful antioxidant which inhibits the oxidation of cholesterol in LDLs; this slows the formation of foam cells, which contribute to atherosclerotic plaques.
It is believed to act at ABCA1.[3]  It also lowers levels of HDL.[4]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATP-binding_cassette_transporter

ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.[1][2] ABC transporters often consist of multiple subunits, one or two of which are transmembrane proteins and one or two of which are membrane-associated ATPases. The ATPase subunits that utilize the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding and hydrolysis to energize the translocation of various substrates across membranes, either for uptake or for export of the substrate. …..

Procainamide Hydrochloride 普魯卡因
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procainamide

Procainamide is a medication of the antiarrhythmic class used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. It is classified by the Vaughan Williams classification system as class Ia.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Procainamide works as an anti-arrhythmic agent and is used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. It induces rapid block of the batrachotoxin (BTX)-activatedsodium channels of the heart muscle and acts as antagonist to long gating closures. The block is voltage dependent and can occur from both sides; either from the intracellular or the extracellular side. Blocking from the extracellular side is weaker than from the intracellular side because it occurs via the hydrophobic pathway. Procainamide is present in charged form and probably requires a direct hydrophobic access to the binding site for blocking of the channel. Furthermore, blocking of the channel shows a decreased voltage sensitivity, which may result from the loss of voltage dependence of the blocking rate. Due to its charged and hydrophilic form, procainamide has its effect from the internal side, where it causes blockage of voltage-dependent open channels. With increasing concentration of procainamide, the frequency of long blockage becomes less without the duration of blockage being affected. The rate of fast blocking is determined by the membrane depolarization. Membrane depolarization leads to increased blocking and decreased unblocking of the channels. Procainamide slows the conduction velocity and increases the refractory period, such that the maximal rate of depolarization is reduced.[7]

Propafenone Hydrochloride 普羅帕酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propafenone

Propafenone (/proʊˈpæfᵻnoʊn/ proh-PAF-i-nohn; brand name Rythmol SR or Rytmonorm) is a class 1C anti-arrhythmic medication, which treats illnesses associated with rapid heart beats such as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Propafenone works by slowing the influx of sodium ions into the cardiac muscle cells, causing a decrease in excitability of the cells. Propafenone is more selective for cells with a high rate, but also blocks normal cells more than class Ia or Ib. Propafenone differs from the prototypical class Ic antiarrhythmic in that it has additional activity as a beta-adrenergic blocker which can cause bradycardia and bronchospasm.

Pseudoephedrine base 假麻黃鹼
Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride
Pseudoephedrine sulfate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoephedrine
 

Pseudoephedrine (/ˌsjuːdoʊ.ᵻˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˌsjuːdoʊˈɛfᵻdriːn/; PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[2]

The salts pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations, either as a single ingredient or (more commonly) in combination with antihistamines, guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) or an NSAID (such as aspirin or ibuprofen).
Mechanism of action[edit]
Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine. Its principal mechanism of action relies on its direct action on the adrenergic receptor system.[8][9] The vasoconstriction that pseudoephedrine produces is believed to be principally an α-adrenergic receptor response.[10]

Pseudoephedrine acts on α- and β2-adrenergic receptors, to cause vasoconstriction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the bronchi, respectively.[8][9] α-adrenergic receptors are located on the muscles lining the walls of blood vessels. When these receptors are activated, the muscles contract, causing the blood vessels to constrict (vasoconstriction). The constricted blood vessels now allow less fluid to leave the blood vessels and enter the nose, throat and sinus linings, which results in decreased inflammation of nasal membranes, as well as decreased mucus production. Thus, by constriction of blood vessels, mainly those located in the nasal passages, pseudoephedrine causes a decrease in the symptoms of nasal congestion. Activation of β2-adrenergic receptors produces relaxation of smooth muscle of the bronchi,[8] causing bronchial dilation and in turn decreasing congestion (although not fluid) and difficulty breathing.

Rabeprazole Sodium 雷貝拉唑鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabeprazole
 

Rabeprazole /ˌræ.ˈbɛp.ræ.zɔːl/ is an antiulcer drug in the class of proton pump inhibitors.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton-pump_inhibitor
It was developed by Eisai Co. and is available worldwide under many brand names. 

Indications and usage[edit]
Short-term treatment in healing and symptomatic relief of duodenal ulcers and erosive or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); maintaining healing and reducing relapse rates of heartburn symptoms in patients with GERD; treatment of daytime and nighttime heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD; long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and in combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin to eradicate Helicobacter pylori.

    Gastric ulcer (GU)

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

    Maintenance of healing of erosive or ulcerative GERD

    Healing of erosive and ulcerative GERD

    Healing of duodenal ulcers.

    Treatment of symptomatic GERD

    Treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)

    Helicobacter pylori eradication to reduce risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence

Rapamycin 雷帕黴素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sirolimus
 

Sirolimus (INN/USAN), also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.[4][5][6] It has immunosuppressant functions in humans and is especially useful in preventing the rejection of kidney transplants. It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2).

It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and was isolated for the first time in 1972 by Suren Sehgal and colleagues from samples of Streptomyces hygroscopicus found on Easter Island.[7][8] The compound was originally named rapamycin after the native name of the island, Rapa Nui.[5] Sirolimus was initially developed as an antifungal agent. However, this use was abandoned when it was discovered to have potent immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties due to its ability to inhibit mTOR. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1999 and is marketed under the trade name Rapamune by Pfizer (formerly by Wyeth).
mTOR inhibitors
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MTOR_inhibitors

Rasagiline Mesylate 甲磺酸雷沙吉蘭
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rasagiline
 

Rasagiline (Azilect, TVP-1012, N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan[1]) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B[2] used as a monotherapy to treat symptoms in early Parkinson's disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases.[3]

The racemic form of the drug was invented by Aspro Nicholas in the early 1979s. Moussa B.H. Youdim identified it as a potential drug for Parkinson's disease, and working with collaborators at Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Israel and the drug company, Teva Pharmaceutical, identified the R-isomer as the active form of the drug.[4] Teva brought it to market in partnership with Lundbeck in Europe and Eisai in the US and elsewhere. It was approved in Europe in 2005 and in the US in 2006.
Mechanism of Action[edit]
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of cells that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down neurotransmitters. MAO has two forms, MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-B breaks down dopamine. Rasagiline prevents the breakdown of dopamine by irreversibly binding to MAO-B. Dopamine is therefore more available, somewhat compensating for the diminished quantities made in the brains of people with Parkinsons.[5]

Selegiline was the first selective MAO-B inhibitor. It is partly metabolized to levomethamphetamine (l-methamphetamine), one of the two enantiomers of methamphetamine, in vivo.[9][10] While these metabolites may contribute to selegiline's ability to inhibit reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, they have also been associated with orthostatic hypotension and hallucinations in some people.[10][11][12] Rasagiline metabolizes into 1(R)-aminoindan which has no amphetamine-like characteristics[13] and has neuroprotective properties in cells and in animal models.[14]

It is selective for MAO type B over type A by a factor of fourteen.[15]

Regadenoson 瑞加德松
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regadenoson
 

Regadenoson (CVT-3146, Lexiscan) is an A2A adenosine receptor agonist that is a coronary vasodilator that is commonly used in pharmacologic stress testing. It produces hyperemia quickly and maintains it for a duration that is useful for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging.[1] The selective nature of the drug makes it preferable to other stress agents such as adenosine, which are less selective and therefore cause more side-effects.

Regadenoson was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration on April 10, 2008 and is marketed by Astellas Pharma under the tradename Lexiscan.[2] It is approved for use in the European Union and under the name of Rapiscan. It is currently being marketed by GE Healthcare and is being sold in both the United Kingdom and Germany.

Regadenoson has a 2 to 3 minute biological half-life, as compared with adenosine's 10-second half-life. As a result, regadenoson stress protocols use a single bolus, instead of a 4-6 minute continuous infusion, which was needed with adenosine. Another difference is that adenosine infusion is weight based (140mcg/kg/minute), while with regadenoson, a 0.4mg/5mL preloaded syringe dose is standard for all weights. Regadenoson stress tests are not affected by the presence of beta blockers, as regadenoson vasodilates via the adenosine pathway without stimulating beta adrenergic receptors.[citation needed]

One side effect of regadenoson is that it can temporarily disrupt the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by inhibiting P-glycoprotein function.[3]

Riluzole 利魯唑
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riluzole#Mechanism_of_Action
 

Riluzole (Rilutek, Teglutik) is a drug used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These are marketed by Sanofi Pharmaceuticals and Martindale Pharma respectively. Riluzole delays the onset of ventilator-dependence or tracheostomy in selected patients and may increase survival by approximately two to three months.[2]
Mechanism of Action[edit]
Riluzole preferentially blocks TTX-sensitive sodium channels, which are associated with damaged neurons.[15][16] Riluzole has also been reported to directly inhibit the kainate and NMDA receptors.[17] However, the action of riluzole on glutamate receptors has been controversial, as no binding of the drug to any known sites has been shown for them.[18][19] In addition, as its antiglutamatergic action is still detectable in the presence of sodium channel blockers, it is also uncertain whether or not it acts via this way. Rather, its ability to stimulate glutamate uptake seems to mediate many of its effects.[20][21] In addition to its role in accelerating glutamate clearance from the synapse, Riluzole may also prevent glutamate release from presynaptic terminals.[22] These effects combined could significantly reduce glutamate signaling and cause indirect antagonism without acting at glutamate receptors themselves.

Rizatriptan Benzoate 利扎曲坦苯甲酸酯
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rizatriptan
 

Rizatriptan (trade name Maxalt) is a 5-HT1 receptor agonist of the triptan class of drugs developed by Merck & Co. for the treatment of migraine headaches.[1] It is available in strengths of 5 and 10 mg as tablets and orally disintegrating tablets (Maxalt-MLT).

Maxalt obtained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on June 29, 1998. It is a second-generation triptan.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Main article: Serotonin receptor agonist
Rizatriptan acts as an agonist at serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors.[2] Like the other triptans sumatriptan and zolmitriptan, rizatriptan induces vasoconstriction—possibly by inhibiting the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from sensory neurons in the trigeminal nerve.[2]

Sebacoyl Dinalbuphine Ester
Sebacoyl Dinalbuphine Ester : a prodrug of nalbuphine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalbuphine

Medical uses[edit]
Nalbuphine is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain. It can also be used as a supplement to balanced anesthesia, for preoperative and postoperative analgesia, and for obstetrical analgesia during labor and delivery.
Nalbuphine is a semi-synthetic opioid used commercially as an analgesic under a variety of trade names, including Nubain and Manfine.
Clinical pharmacology[edit]
Nalbuphine is a semi-synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic of the phenanthrene series. It is chemically related to the widely used opioid antagonists, naloxone and naltrexone, and the potent opioid analgesic, oxymorphone.

Semi-synthetic Paclitaxel 半合成紫杉醇
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer. It is given by injection into a vein.[2] There is also an albumin bound formulation.[2]

Common side effects include hair loss, bone marrow suppression, numbness, allergic reactions, muscle pains, and diarrhea. Other serious side effects include heart problems, increased risk of infection, and lung inflammation. Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby.[2] Paclitaxel is in the taxane family of medications.[3] It works by interference with the normal function of microtubules during cell division.[2]

Paclitaxel was first isolated in 1971 from the Pacific yew and approved for medical use in 1993.[4][5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 7.06 to 13.48 USD per 100 mg vial.[7] This amount in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 66.85 pounds.[8] It is now manufactured by cell culture.[5]Mechanism of action[edit]
Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs that target tubulin. Paclitaxel-treated cells have defects in mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cell division. Unlike other tubulin-targeting drugs such as colchicine that inhibit microtubule assembly, paclitaxel stabilizes the microtubule polymer and protects it from disassembly. Chromosomes are thus unable to achieve a metaphase spindle configuration. This blocks the progression of mitosis and prolonged activation of the mitotic checkpoint triggers apoptosis or reversion to the G-phase of the cell cycle without cell division.[18][19]

Sevelamer Carbonate 碳酸司维拉姆
Sevelamer Hydrochloride
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sevelamer

Sevelamer (rINN) (/sɛˈvɛləmər/ or /sɛˈvɛləmɪər/) is a phosphate binding drug used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. When taken with meals, it binds to dietary phosphate and prevents its absorption. Sevelamer was invented and developed by GelTex Pharmaceuticals. Sevelamer is currently marketed by Sanofi under the trade names Renagel (sevelamer hydrochloride) and Renvela (sevelamer carbonate). 
Chemistry and pharmacology[edit]
Sevelamer consists of polyallylamine that is crosslinked with epichlorohydrin.[1] The marketed form sevelamer hydrochloride is a partial hydrochloride salt being present as approximately 40% aminehydrochloride and 60% sevelamer base. The amine groups of sevelamer become partially protonated in the intestine and interact with phosphate ions through ionic and hydrogen bonding.
Medical uses[edit]
Sevelamer is used in the management of hyperphosphatemia in adult patients with stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Its efficacy at lowering phosphate levels is similar to that of calcium acetate, but without the accompanying risk of hypercalcemia.

Sodium Starch Glycolate 澱粉乙醇酸鈉
https://www.drugs.com/inactive/sodium-starch-glycolate-type-a-potato-412.html

Sodium starch glycolate type A potato is the sodium salt of carboxymethyl ether of starch from potato origin. Starch glycolates are also of rice, wheat or corn origin. It is a white to off-white, tasteless, odorless, relatively free-flowing powder.

Sodium starch glycolate is used as a pharmaceutical grade dissolution excipient for tablets and capsules. Sodium starch glycolate absorbs water rapidly, resulting in swelling which leads to rapid disintegration of tablets and granules. It is used as a disintegrant, a suspending agent and as a gelling agent. Without a disintegrant, tablets may not dissolve appropriately and may effect the amount of active ingredient absorbed, thereby decreasing effectiveness.[1] [2]

Sodium Stearyl Fumarate 硬脂酰富馬酸鈉
https://www.drugs.com/inactive/sodium-stearyl-fumarate-320.html

Sodium stearyl fumarate is a water-soluble lubricant used in the pharmaceutical industry for compressing tablets ("tableting").

Sodium stearyl fumarate is an inert, hydrophilic, tablet lubricant, useful in situations where other lubricating agents (i.e., magnesium stearate) fail to provide tablets of adequate stability, hardness, content uniformity, disintegration and dissolution rate.[1][2]

Sodium Valproate 丙戊酸鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valproate

Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and divalproex sodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.[2] It is useful for the prevention of seizures in those with absence seizures, partial seizures, and generalized seizures. It can be given intravenously or by mouth. Long and short acting formulations exist.[2]

Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, sleepiness, and a dry mouth. Serious side effects can include liver problems and regular monitoring of liver function tests is therefore recommended. Other serious risks include pancreatitis and an increased suicide risk. It is known to cause serious abnormalities in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Because of this it is not typically recommended in women of childbearing age who have migraines. It is unclear how valproate works.[2]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Although the mechanism of action of valproate is not fully understood,[37] it has recently been shown to protect against a seizure-induced reduction in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) as a potential therapeutic mechanism.[49] In addition, its anticonvulsant effect has been attributed to the blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels and increased brain levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).[37] The GABAergic effect is also believed to contribute towards the anti-manic properties of valproate.[37] In animals, sodium valproate raises cerebral and cerebellar levels of the inhibitory synaptic neurotransmitter, GABA, possibly by inhibiting GABA degradative enzymes, such as GABA transaminase, succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase and by inhibiting the re-uptake of GABA by neuronal cells.[37]

It also has histone deacetylase-inhibiting effects. The inhibition of histone deacetylase, by promoting more transcriptionally active chromatin structures, likely presents the epigenetic mechanism for regulation of many of the neuroprotective effects attributed to valproic acid. Intermediate molecules mediating these effects include VEGF, BDNF, and GDNF.[50][51]

Valproic acid has been found to be an antagonist of the androgen and progesterone receptors, and hence as a non-steroidal antiandrogen and antiprogestogen, at concentrations much lower than therapeutic serum levels.[52] In addition, the drug has been identified as a potent aromatase inhibitor, and suppresses estrogen concentrations.[53] These actions are likely to be involved in the reproductive endocrine disturbances seen with valproic acid treatment.[52][53]

Sulcaine 蘇爾卡因
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3300

Tacrolimus 他克莫司
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacrolimus

Tacrolimus (also FK-506 or fujimycin, trade names Prograf, Advagraf, Protopic) is an immunosuppressive drug used mainly after allogeneic organ transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection. It achieves this by inhibiting the production of interleukin-2, a molecule that promotes the development and proliferation of T cells, which are vital to the body's learned (or adaptive) immune response. Tacrolimus is also used in the treatment of other T cell-mediated diseases such as eczema (for which it is applied to the skin in a medicated ointment), severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, Kimura's disease, and the skin condition vitiligo.

Chemically it is a 23-membered macrolide lactone that was first discovered in 1987 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacterium Streptomyces tsukubaensis.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Tacrolimus is a macrolide calcineurin inhibitor. In T-cells, activation of the T-cell receptor normally increases intracellular calcium, which acts via calmodulin to activate calcineurin. Calcineurin then dephosphorylates the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), which moves to the nucleus of the T-cell and increases the activity of genes coding for IL-2 and related cytokines. Tacrolimus prevents the dephosphorylation of NF-AT.[16]

In detail, tacrolimus reduces peptidylprolyl isomerase activity by binding to the immunophilin FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein), creating a new complex. This FKBP12–FK506 complex interacts with and inhibits calcineurin, thus inhibiting both T-lymphocyte signal transduction and IL-2 transcription.[17] Although this activity is similar to that of ciclosporin, the incidence of acute rejection is reduced by tacrolimus use over ciclosporin use.[1] Although short-term immunosuppression concerning patient and graft survival is found to be similar between the two drugs, tacrolimus results in a more favorable lipid profile, and this may have important long-term implications given the prognostic influence of rejection on graft survival.[18]

Tafluprost 他氟前列腺素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tafluprost
 

Tafluprost (trade names Taflotan by Santen Pharmaceutical and Zioptan by Merck in the US) is a prostaglandin analogue. It is used topically (as eye drops) to control the progression of open-angle glaucoma and in the management of ocular hypertension, alone or in combination with other medication. It reduces intraocular pressure by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes.[1][2]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Tafluprost is a prodrug of the active substance, tafluprost acid, a structural and functional analogue of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Tafluprost acid is a selective agonist at the prostaglandin F receptor, increasing outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes and thus lowering intraocular pressure.[2][3]
Other PGF2α analogues with the same mechanism include latanoprost and travoprost.[2]

Taltirelin 他替瑞林
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taltirelin


Taltirelin (marketed under the tradename Ceredist) is a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog, which mimics the physiological actions of TRH, but with a much longer half-life and duration of effects,[1] and little development of tolerance following prolonged dosing.[2] It has nootropic,[3]neuroprotective[4] and analgesic effects.[5]

Taltirelin is primarily being researched for the treatment of spinocerebellar ataxia; limited research has also been carried out with regard to other neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., spinal muscular atrophy.[6][7][8]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyrotropin-releasing_hormone
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. It is a tropic, tripeptidal hormone.

TRH has been used clinically for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration and disturbance of consciousness in humans.[1] Its pharmaceutical form is called protirelin (INN) (/proʊˈtaɪrᵻlᵻn/).

Tamsulosin HCl 坦洛新
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamsulosin

Tamsulosin, sold under the trade name Flomax, is a medication used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), help with the passage of kidney stones,[2] and for urinary retention along with other measures.

Tamsulosin, and other medications in the class called alpha blockers, work by relaxing bladder neck muscles and muscle fibers in the prostate itself and make it easier to urinate.[3] It is an α1a adrenergic receptor antagonist.

Tamsulosin was developed by Yamanouchi Pharmaceuticals (now part of Astellas Pharma) and was first marketed in 1996. The U.S. patent expired in October 2009.[4] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved generics in March 2010.[5]
Mechanism[edit]
Main article: Alpha blocker
Tamsulosin is a selective α1 receptor antagonist that has preferential selectivity for the α1A receptor in the prostate versus the α1B receptor in the blood vessels.[19]

When alpha 1 receptors in the bladder neck and the prostate are blocked, this causes a relaxation in smooth muscle and therefore less resistance to urinary flow. Due to this, the pain associated with BPH can be reduced.

Selective action of tamsulosin in alpha 1A/D receptors is controversial and over three quarters of tamsulosin registered human studies are unpublished.[20]

Tegafur
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tegafur
 

Tegafur (INN, BAN, USAN) is a chemotherapeutic fluorouracil prodrug used in the treatment of cancers. It is a component of the combination drug tegafur/uracil. When metabolised, it becomes 5-fluorouracil.[1]
Mechanism of action[edit]
It is a prodrug to fluorouracil which is a thymidylate synthase inhibitor.[2]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymidylate_synthase

Thymidylate synthetase (EC 2.1.1.45)[4] is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). Thymidine is one of the nucleotides in DNA. With inhibition of TS, an imbalance of deoxynucleotides and increased levels of dUMP arise. Both cause DNA damage.[5][6]

Telavancin HCl 特拉萬星
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telavancin


Telavancin (trade name Vibativ) is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide for use in MRSA or other Gram-positive infections. Telavancin is a semi-synthetic derivative of vancomycin.[1][2]

The FDA approved the drug in September 2009 for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI),[3] and in June 2013 for hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus.[4]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Like vancomycin, telavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of the peptidoglycan in the growing cell wall (see Pharmacology and chemistry of vancomycin). In addition, it disrupts bacterial membranes by depolarization.[2][9]

Temozolomide 替莫唑胺
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temozolomide
 

Temozolomide (TMZ; brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug. It is an alkylating agent used as a treatment of some brain cancers; as a second-line treatment for astrocytoma and a first-line treatment for glioblastoma multiforme.[1][2]
Mechanism of action[edit]
The therapeutic benefit of temozolomide depends on its ability to alkylate/methylate DNA, which most often occurs at the N-7 or O-6 positions of guanine residues. This methylation damages the DNA and triggers the death of tumor cells. However, some tumor cells are able to repair this type of DNA damage, and therefore diminish the therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide, by expressing a protein O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) encoded in humans by the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene.[4] In some tumors, epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene prevents the synthesis of this enzyme, and as a consequence such tumors are more sensitive to killing by temozolomide.[5] Conversely, the presence of AGT protein in brain tumors predicts poor response to temozolomide and these patients receive little benefit from chemotherapy with temozolomide.[6]

Thiamine Disulfide 硫胺二硫化物
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine
https://www.drugs.com/ingredient/thiamine.html

Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[2]As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it including beriberi and Korsakoff's syndrome. Other uses include maple syrup urine disease and Leigh's disease. It is taken by mouth or by injection.[1]

Side effects are generally few. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis may occur. Thiamine is in the B complex family. It is needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates.[1] As people are unable to make it, thiamine is an essential nutrient. Food sources include whole grains, meat, and fish.[2]

Thiamine was discovered in 1897, isolated in 1926, and first made in 1936.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[4]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin

A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism.

Thiopental 硫噴妥鈉
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_thiopental
 

Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital. Sodium thiopental was a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system, but was supplanted by propofol.[3] It was previously the first of three drugs administered during most lethal injections in the United States, but the U.S. manufacturer Hospira stopped manufacturing the drug and the EU banned the export of the drug for this purpose.[4]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Main article: Barbiturate
Sodium thiopental is a member of the barbiturate class of drugs, which are relatively non-selective compounds that bind to an entire superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, of which the GABAA receptor channel is one of several representatives. This superfamily of ion channels includes the neuronal nAChR channel, the 5HT3R channel, the GlyR channel and others. Surprisingly, while GABAA receptor currents are increased by barbiturates (and other general anesthetics), ligand-gated ion channels that are predominantly permeable for cationic ions are blocked by these compounds. For example, neuronal nAChR channels are blocked by clinically relevant anesthetic concentrations of both sodium thiopental and pentobarbital.[23] Such findings implicate (non-GABA-ergic) ligand-gated ion channels, e.g. the neuronal nAChR channel, in mediating some of the (side) effects of barbiturates.[24] The GABAA receptor is an inhibitory channel that decreases neuronal activity, and barbiturates enhance the inhibitory action of the GABAA receptor.[25]

Timolol Maleate 馬來酸噻嗎洛爾
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timolol


Timolol is a medication used either by mouth or as eye drops.[2][3] As eye drops it is used to treat increased pressure inside the eye such as in ocular hypertension and glaucoma.[2] By mouth it is used for high blood pressure, chest pain due to not enough blood flow to the heart, to prevent further complications after a heart attack, and to prevent migraines.[3]

Common side effects with the drops is irritation of the eye.[2] Common side effects by mouth include feeling tired, slow heart beat, itchiness, and shortness of breath.[3] Other side effects include masking the symptoms of low blood sugar in those with diabetes. Use is not recommended in those with asthma, heart failure, or COPD.[2] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe for the baby.[4] Timolol is in the non-selective Beta blocker family of medication.[2]

Tipepidine Hibenzate 阿斯维林;提培匹定;
双噻甲哌啶
;海苯酸替培啶;羟苯酰苯酸替培啶;双噻甲哌啶 2-(4-羟基苯甲酰)苯甲酸盐;3-[(噻吩-2-)亚甲基]-1-甲基哌啶 2-(4-羟基苯甲酰)苯甲酸盐 (1:1)http://www.chemicalbook.com/chemicalproductproperty_cn_cb1299803.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipepidine

Tipepidine (INN) (brand names Asverin, Antupex, Asvelik, Asvex, Bitiodin, Cofdenin A, Hustel, Nodal, Sotal), also known as tipepidine hibenzate (JAN), is a synthetic, non-opioid antitussive and expectorant of the thiambutene class.[1][2] It acts as an inhibitor of G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs).[3] The drug was discovered in the 1950s,[4] and was developed in Japan in 1959.[5] It is used as the hibenzate and citrate salts.[1][5]

The usual dose is 20 mg every 4–6 hours.[citation needed] Possible side effects of tipepidine, especially in overdose, may include drowsiness, vertigo, delirium, disorientation, loss of consciousness, and confusion.[5]

Tipepidine has recently garnered interest as a potential psychiatric drug. It is being investigated in depression,[3][6][7] obsessive-compulsive disorder,[8] and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[9][10] Through inhibition of GIRK channels, tipepidine increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, but without increasing locomotor activity or producing methamphetamine-like behavioral sensitization, and this action appears to be at least partly responsible for its antidepressant-like effects in rodents.[11][12]

Tolperisone HCl 托哌酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tolperisone


Tolperisone, a piperidine derivative, is a centrally acting muscle relaxant. Trade names include Biocalm, Muscodol, Mydeton, Mydocalm, Mydoflex, Myolax, Myoxan and Viveo.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Tolperisone is a centrally acting muscle relaxant that acts at the reticular formation in the brain stem[1] by blocking voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels.[7][8]

Topiramate 托吡酯
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topiramate


Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug. In late 2012, topiramate was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in combination with phentermine for weight loss. The drug had previously been used off-label for this purpose. Topiramate was originally produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics and Noramco, Inc., both divisions of the Johnson & Johnson Corporation. This medication was discovered in 1979 by Bruce E. Maryanoff and Joseph F. Gardocki during their research work at McNeil Pharmaceutical.[1][2][3]

Topiramate came into commercial use in 1996.[4] Generic versions are available in Canada and these were approved by the FDA in September 2006. Mylan Pharmaceuticals was recently granted final approval for generic topiramate by the FDA for sale in the United States.[5] The last patent for topiramate in the U.S. was for use in children and expired on February 28, 2009.[6]
Anticonvulsant:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anticonvulsant
Conventional antiepileptic drugs may block sodium channels or enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function. Several antiepileptic drugs have multiple or uncertain mechanisms of action.[7] Next to the voltage-gated sodium channels and components of the GABA system, their targets include GABAA receptors, the GAT-1 GABA transporter, and GABA transaminase.[8] Additional targets include voltage-gated calcium channels, SV2A, and α2δ.[9][10] By blocking sodium or calcium channels, antiepileptic drugs reduce the release of excitatory glutamate, whose release is considered to be elevated in epilepsy, but also that of GABA.[11] This is probably a side effect or even the actual mechanism of action for some antiepileptic drugs, since GABA can itself, directly or indirectly, act proconvulsively.[11] Another potential target of antiepileptic drugs is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The drug class was the 5th-best-selling in the US in 2007.[19]

Topotecan HCl 托泊替康鹽酸鹽
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topotecan
 

Topotecan (trade name Hycamtin) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a topoisomerase inhibitor. It is a synthetic, water-soluble analog of the natural chemical compound camptothecin. It is used in the form of its hydrochloride salt to treat ovarian cancer, lung cancer and other cancer types.

After GlaxoSmithKline received final FDA approval for Hycamtin Capsules on October 15, 2007, topotecan became the first topoisomerase I inhibitor for oral use.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Topotecan is a semi-synthetic derivative of camptothecin. Camptothecin is a natural product extracted from the bark of the tree Camptotheca acuminata. Topoisomerase-I is a nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional strain in DNA by opening single strand breaks.[16] Once topoisomerase-I creates a single strand break, the DNA can rotate in front of the advancing replication fork. In physiological environments, topotecan is in equilibrium with its inactive carboxylate form.[17] Topotecan's active lactone form intercalates between DNA bases in the topoisomerase-I cleavage complex.[18] The binding of topotecan in the cleavage complex prevents topoisomerase-I from religating the nicked DNA strand after relieving the strain.[18] This intercalation therefore traps the topoisomerase-I in the cleavage complex bound to the DNA.[18] When the replication-fork collides with the trapped topoisomerase-I, DNA damage occurs.[18] The unbroken DNA strand breaks and mammalian cells cannot efficiently repair these double strand breaks.[19] The accumulation of trapped topoisomerase-I complexes is a known response to apoptotic stimuli.[20] This disruption prevents DNA replication and ultimately leads to cell death. This process leads to breaks in the DNA strand resulting in apoptosis. Administration of topotecan down-regulates its target, topoisomerase-I; therefore, it is dosed to maximize efficacy and minimize related toxicity.[17] Topotecan is often given in combination with Paclitaxel as first line treatment for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.[17]

Trandolapril 群多普利
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trandolapril
 

Trandolapril is an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure, it may also be used to treat other conditions. It is marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the brand name Mavik.

Trandolapril is a prodrug that is de-esterified to trandolaprilat. It is believed to exert its antihypertensive effect through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Trandolapril has a half-life of about 6 hours, and trandolaprilat has a half life of about 10 h. Trandolaprilat has about eight times the activity of its parent drug. About one-third of trandolapril and its metabolites are excreted in the urine, and about two-thirds of trandolapril and its metabolites are excreted in the feces. Serum protein binding of trandolapril is about 80%.
Mode of action[edit]
Trandolapril acts by competitive inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system which plays an important role in regulating blood pressure.

Travoprost 曲伏前列素
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travoprost


Travoprost ophthalmic solution is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, by reducing intraocular pressure. It is a synthetic prostaglandin analog (or more specifically, an analog of prostaglandin F2α)[1][2] that works by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes.[3] It is also known by the brand names of Travatan and Travatan Z, manufactured by Alcon.
Mechanism of action[edit]
Like other analogs of prostaglandin F2α such as tafluprost and latanoprost, travoprost is an esterprodrug of the free acid, which acts as an agonist at the prostaglandin F receptor, increasing outflow of aqueous fluid from the eye and thus lowering intraocular pressure.[4]

Treprostinil 曲前列素
Treprostinil Sodium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treprostinil

Treprostinil (marketed under the trade names Remodulin for infusion, Orenitram for oral, and Tyvaso for inhalation) is a vasodilator that is used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.[1] Treprostinil is a synthetic analog of prostacyclin (PGI2).
The inhaled form of treprostinil was approved by the FDA in July 2009 and is marketed as the trade name Tyvaso.
Mechanism of action[edit]
The major effects of treprostinil are vasodilation of arteries in the lungs and body. Treprostinil also inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle proliferation.
Mode of action[edit]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostacyclin#Mode_of_action
 

Unoprostone Isopropyl 烏諾前列酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unoprostone

Unoprostone (INN) is a prostaglandin analogue. Its isopropyl ester, unoprostone isopropyl, was marketed under the trade name Rescula for the management of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but is now discontinued in the US.[1]

Valproic acid 丙戊酸
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valproate
As: Divalproex Sodium


Vilazodone HCl 維拉佐酮
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilazodone

Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd VEYE-brid) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Clinical Data for the treatment of major depressive disorder. The chemical compound was originally developed by Merck KGaA (Germany).[2] Vilazodone was approved by the FDA for use in the United States to treat major depressive disorder in 2011.[3][4][5] Its activity can be thought of as a combination of an SSRI and buspirone in some ways.
Pharmacology[edit]
Vilazodone acts as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (IC50 = 2.1 nM; Ki = 0.1 nM) and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist (IC50 = 0.2 nM; IA = ~60–70%).[6][11] It has negligible affinity for other serotonin receptors such as 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C.[11][12] It also exhibits negligible inhibitory activity at the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters (IC50 = 56 nM for NET and 37 nM for DAT).[1]

Zoledronic acid 唑來膦酸
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoledronic_acid

Zoledronic acid (INN) or zoledronate is a bisphosphonate drug given intravenously to treat some bone diseases. It is sold under many trade names worldwide.[1]
Mechanism of action[edit]
Zoledronic acid slows down bone resorption, allowing the bone-forming cells time to rebuild normal bone and allowing bone remodeling.[2]
Medical uses[edit]
Bone complications of cancer[edit]
Zometa is used to prevent skeletal fractures in patients with cancers such as multiple myeloma and prostate cancer, as well as for treating osteoporosis.[3] It can also be used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy and can be helpful for treating pain from bone metastases.[4]
It can be administered at home rather than in hospital. Such administration has shown safety and quality-of-life benefits in breast cancer patients with bone metastases.[5]
Osteoporosis[edit]
Marketed as Aclasta (in Australia) or Reclast (in the US), zoledronic acid may be given as a 5 mg infusion once per year for treatment of osteoporosis in men and post-menopausal women at increased risk of fracture.[medical citation needed]
In 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also approved Reclast for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.[medical citation needed]

Zolmitriptan 佐米曲普坦
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zolmitriptan

Zolmitriptan is a selective serotonin receptor agonist of the 1B and 1D subtypes. It is a triptan, used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura and cluster headaches.

Zolmitriptan is marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand names Zomig, Zomigon (Argentina, Canada & Greece), AscoTop (Germany) and Zomigoro (France). In 2008, Zomig generated nearly $154 million in sales.[1]

AstraZeneca's U.S. patent on Zomig tablets expired on November 14, 2012, and its pediatric exclusivity extension expired on May 14, 2013.[2] The patent in certain European countries has already expired too, and generic drug maker Actavis released a generic version in those countries, starting in March 2012.[3]

Zotarolimus 佐他莫司
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zotarolimus

Zotarolimus (INN, codenamed ABT-578) is an immunosuppressant. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of rapamycin. It was designed for use in stents with phosphorylcholine as a carrier. Coronary stents reduce early complications and improve late clinical outcomes in patients needing interventional cardiology.[1] The first human coronary stent implantation was first performed in 1986 by Puel et al.[1][2] However, there are complications associated with stent use, development of thrombosis which impedes the efficiency of coronary stents, haemorrhagic and restenosis complications are problems associated with stents.[1]

These complications have prompted the development of drug-eluting stents. Stents are bound by a membrane consisting of polymers which not only slowly release zotarolimus and its derivatives into the surrounding tissues but also do not invoke an inflammatory response by the body.

Medtronic are using zotarolimus as the anti-proliferative agent in the polymer coating of their Endeavor and Resolute products.[3]

             

International Nonproprietary Name:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_nonproprietary_name

//
An international nonproprietary name (INN) is an official generic and nonproprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or active ingredient.
[2] International nonproprietary names make communication more precise by providing a unique standard name for each active ingredient, to avoid prescribing errors.[1] The INN system has been coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1953.

Having unambiguous standard names for each drug (standardization of drug nomenclature) is important because a drug may be sold by many different brand names, or a branded medication may contain more than one drug. For example, the branded medications Celexa, Celapram and Citrol all contain the same active ingredient: citalopram; and the branded preparation Lemsip contains two active ingredients: paracetamol and phenylephrine.

Each drug's INN is unique but may contain a word stem that is shared with other drugs of the same class, for example the beta blocker drugs propranolol and atenolol share the -olol suffix, and the benzodiazepine drugs lorazepam and diazepam share the -azepam suffix.

The WHO issues INNs in English, Latin, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese, and a drug's INNs are often cognate across most or all of the languages, with minor spelling or pronunciation differences, for example: "paracetamol" (en) "paracetamolum" (la), "paracétamol" (fr) and "парацетамол" (ru). An established INN is known as a recommended INN (rINN), while a name that is still being considered is called a proposed INN (pINN).

Active ingredient:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_ingredient

An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active. The similar terms active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and bulk active are also used in medicine, and the term active substance may be used for natural products. Some medication products may contain more than one active ingredient. The traditional word for the API is pharmacon or pharmakon (from Greek: φάρμακον, adapted from pharmacos) which originally denoted a magical substance or drug.

The term active constituent is often chosen when referring to the active substance of interest in a plant (such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other substances), whereas the natural products present in plants were not added by any human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients").

In contrast with the active ingredients, the inactive ingredients are usually called excipients in pharmaceutical contexts. The main excipient that serves as a medium for conveying the active ingredient is usually called the vehicle. Petrolatum and mineral oil are common vehicles.

Pharmaceuticals[edit]
The dosage form for a pharmaceutical contains the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), which is the drug itself, and excipients, which are the substances of the tablet, or the liquid the API is suspended in, or other material that is pharmaceutically inert. Drugs are chosen primarily for their active ingredients.

Patients often have difficulty identifying the active ingredients in their medication, and are often unaware of the notion of an active ingredient. When patients are on multiple medications, active ingredients can interfere with each other, often resulting in severe or life-threatening complications.[1]There now exist online services which can identify the active ingredient of most medications, such as the Medicines database providing information on medications available in Australia.[2]

Herbal medicine[edit]
In phytopharmaceutical or herbal medicine, the active ingredient may be either unknown or may require cofactors in order to achieve therapeutic goals. This leads to complications in labelling. One way manufacturers have attempted to indicate strength is to engage in standardization to a marker compound. However, standardization has not been achieved yet: different companies use different markers, or different levels of the same markers, or different methods of testing for marker compounds. For instance, St John's wort is often standardized to the hypericin which is now known not to be the "active ingredient" for antidepressant use. Other companies standardize to hyperforin or both, although there may be some 24 known possible active constituents. Many herbalists believe that the active ingredient in a plant is the plant itself.
[3]

     

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