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Top Level Index

Gastrointestinal tract / Alimentary system

Antibiotics

Antidiabetic & pcos

Cardiovascular system

Central nervous system

Contraceptive agents

Dermatologicals

Opthalmic

Genito-urinary tract

Hormones

Immunology

Metabolism

Musculo - skeletal disorder

Oncology

Oropharyngeal

Respiratory system & anti- allergics

Supplementation

Surgical & Vaccines

Veterinary list

We manufacture

 

Index / Table of Content

Gastrointestinal tract / Alimentary system
Antacids, Antireflux Agents & Antiulcerants Homatropine Methylbromide
Mesalazine
Rebamipide
Sucralfate
Magaldrate
Constipation & Bowel Cleansers Docusate Sodium
Prucalopride Succinate
Bisacodyl
Dissolution Of Cholestrol - Rich Gallstones Ursodeoxycholic Acid
Drug Modifying Intestinal Motility & Acid Secretions Hyoscine Butylbromide
Metoclopramide
Mosapride citrate
H2 Blockers & Ulcer Healing Drugs Esomeprazole
Lansoprazole
Omeprazole
Pantoprazole
Ranitidine
Rabeprazole sodium
Non Specific Antidiarrhoeal Agents Loperamide
Racecadotril
Rifaximin
Trimethoprim
Probiotics Saccharomyces Boulardii
Prokinetic Agent Cisapride Monohydrate
  Mosapride Citrate
   
Antibiotics
Anthelmintics Albendazole
Febantel
Mebendazole
Nitazoxanide
Antifungals Anidulafungin
Eberconazole
Fluconazole
Ketoconazole
Luliconazole
Micafungin
Sodium Posaconazole
Tavaborole
Itraconazole
Antimalarial Drug Lumefantrine
Antiretroviral Abacavir Sulphate
Atazanavir
Efavirenz
Darunavir (Amorphous / Ethanolate)
Dolutegravir Sodium
Indinavir Sulphate
Oseltamivir
Rilpivirine HCl
Ritonavir
Saquinavir
Simeprevir
Tenofovir
Antivirals Acyclovir
Lamivudine
Valacyclovir
Valganciclovir
Beta-Lactam Faropenem Sodium
Carbapenem Doripenem
Ertapenem
Imipenem with cilastatin (Imipenem/cilastatin)
Meropenem Trihydrate
Drugs used in Ornidazole Protozoal Infections Tinidazole
Metronidazole Benzoate
Glycopeptide Antibacterial Teicoplanin
Macrolides Azithromycin
Erythromycin
Fidaxomici
Oxazolidinones Linezolid
Penicillins Amoxycillin
Ampicillin
Ampicillin with Sulbactam Sodium
Cloxacillin
Pienicillin-G-Amidase Enzyme
Piperacillin with Tazobactam
Quinolones Ciprofloxacin
Garenoxacin
Levofloxacin
Marbofloxacin
Ofloxacin
Sparfloxacin
Tetracyclines Tigecycline
   
Antidiabetic & pcos
Antidiabetic Agents Repaglinide
Metformin HCl
Diabetic Neuropathy Epalrestat
Tapentadol HCl
DPP-4 Inhibitor (Gliptin) Alogliptin
Teneligliptin
Gestational Diabetes Inositol
PCOS D-Chiro-Inositol
SGLT-2 Inhibitor (Gliflozin) Canagliflozin
   
Cardiovascular system
Alpha/Beta Adrenoceptor Agonist Carvedilol HCl / Phosphate
Eplerenone
Fenoterol HBr
Icatibant Acetate
Imiquimod
Isoprenaline HCl
Levosalbutamol HCl / Sulphate
Levosalbutamol Tartrate
Macitentan
Ractopamine HCl
Silodosin
Tizanidine HCl
Tulobuterol Base / HCl
Anti-Anginal Drug Amlodipine
Isosorbide 5 MonoNitrate
Isosorbide DiNitrate / MonoNitrat
Ivabradine
Nifedipine
Pazopanib
Antianemic Agent Ferrous Bisglycinate
Antiarrhythmic Drugs Amiodarone HCl
Diltiazem
Dronedarone
Lidocaine (Lignocaine)
Anticoagulants Dabigatran Etexilate
Enoxaparin
Warfarin Sodium Clathrate
Antihypertensives Cilnidipine
Irbesartan
Losartan Potassium
Moexipril
Sodium Nitroprusside
Atorvastatin Calcium
Rosuvastatin Calcium
Antiparkinsonian Drugs Levodopa
Antiplatelet Drugs Clopidogrel
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Clonidine HCl
Beta Blockers Atenolo
Labetalol
Metoprolol
Moxonidine
Nadolol
Propranolol
S - Metoprolol Succinate
Cardiovascular Energizers Coenzyme Q 10
Cerdiac Glycosides Digoxin
Diuretics Frusemide
Hydrochlorothiazide
Indapamide
Telmisartan
Furosemide
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Pirfenidone
Peripheral Vasodilators Cinnarizine
Ginkgo Biloba
Papaverine HCl
Vasopressors Phenylephrine
   
Central nervous system
Anti-Emetics & Antinauseants Domperidone
Fosaprepitant
Granisetron
Metoclopramide
Ondansetron Di HCl
Prochlorperazine
Trifluoperazine
Trimethobenzamide
Antiarrhythmic Agent Haloperidol
Anticovulsants Carbamazepine
Divalproex
Felbamate
Fosphenytoin Sodium
Gabapentin
Lamotrigine
Levetiracetam
Phenytoin Sodium
Pregabalin
Retigabine
Sodium Valproate
Topiramate
Valproic Acid
Vigabatrin
Antimanic Drugs Haloperidol
  Quetiapine Fumarate
Antipsychotics Aripiprazole
Iloperidone
Lurasidone
Zotepine
Drugs to control Rigidity & Tremors Selegiline
Drugs used to treat Migraine Flunarizine
Frovatriptan
Sumatriptan
Drugs used in Peripheral Neuropathy Benfotiamine
Mecobalamin / Methylcobalamin
Hepatic Encephalopathy Amino Acids
Insomnia Eszopiclone
Ramelteon
Zolpidem Tartrate
Multiple Sclerosis Fingolimod
Neuroleptic Agent Amisulpride
Neuropathic Pain Carbamazepine
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Ibuprofen
Nabumetone
Naproxen Sodium
Sedatives & Tranquillisers Alprazolam
Diazepam
Tricyclic & Related Antidepressants Agomelatine
Brexpiprazole
Cinitapride Hydrogen Tartrate
Citalopram
Dothiepin HCl
Escitalopram
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Milnacipran
Nortriptyline
Sertraline HCl
Imipramine
Trimipramine Maleate
Vilazodone
Amitriptyline HCl
   
Contraceptive agents
Oral Contraceptives Ulipristal Acetate
   
Dermatologicals
Anti- Infective Skin Preparations Acyclovir
Polymyxin B Sulfate
Silver Sulfadiazine
Selenium Sulphide
Antipruritic Crotamiton
Antipsoriasis Acitretin
Dimethyl Fumarate
Methoxsalen
Corticosteroid Responsive Methylprednisolone & Salts
Drugs for Acne Vulgaris Adapalene
Melanizing Agents Trioxsalen
Topical Antifungals & Anti-Parasitics Sertaconazole Nitrate
Terbinafine
Topical Steroids Betamethasone
Fluticasone Propionate
Mometasone Furoate
   
Opthalmic
Anti- Infective Eye Preparations Acyclovir
Fluconazole
Anti- Inflammatory & Anti Allergic Preparations Ketorolac Tromethamine
Sodium Cromoglycate
   
Glaucoma Bimatoprost
Dorzolamide
Timolol Maleate
Mydriatics & Cycloplegics Phenylephrine
 
Genito-urinary tract
Androgen & Anabolic Steroid (AAS) Stanozolol
Erectile Dysfunction Sildenafil Citrate
Hyperphosphatemia Sevelamer HCl / Carbonate
Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide
Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Diatrizoate Sodium / Meglumine
Diatrizoic Acid
Urinary Tract Analgesics & Antispasmodics Adiphenine HCl
Drotaverine HCl
Phenazopyridine
Trospium Chloride
Urinary Tract Infections Fosfomycin Trometamol
Uterine Stimulants Ritodrine Hydrochloride
 
Hormones
Corticosteroids & Related Drugs Deflazacort
Hyper & Hypoglycaemics Glibenclamide
  Glimepiride
Thyroid Hormones Levothyroxine Sodium
Liothyronine Sodium
Vitamin D Analogs Calcitriol
 
Immunology
Immuno-Suppressants Everolimus
Mycophenolic Mofetil / Sodium
Pimecrolimus
Thalidomide
Multiple Sclerosis Teriflunomide
 
Metabolism
Anti- Obesity Cetilistat
Ezetimibe
Drugs used in Gout Colchicine
Febuxostat
Probenecid
Hepatitis C (HCV) Daclatasvir Dihydrochloride
Ledipasvir
Sofosbuvir
Telaprevir
Wilson’s Disease Trientine HCl
 
Musculo - skeletal disorder
Arthritis Celecoxib
Diacerein
Risedronate
Sulfasalazine
Zinc Bisglycinate
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne Oxatomide Anhydrouse / Monohydrate
Muscle Relaxants Flavoxate HCl
Meprobamate
Methocarbamol
Thiocolchicoside
Tofisopam
Muscle Spasms Baclofen
Nonopioid Analgesics Carbamazepine
Etodolac
Glucosamine Sulphate
Indomethacin
Ketorolac Tromethamine
Leflunomide
Meloxicam
Nimesulide
Oxcarbazepine
Paracetamol / DC Grade
Piroxicam
Opioid Analgesics Tramadol Hydrochloride
Osteoporosis Alendronate Sodium
  Ambroxol HCl/Base
   
Oncology
Antimucositis Rutoside
Antineoplastic Agents Irinotecan HCl
Mitomycin
Bladder,Kidney & other Urologic Cancers Sunitinib
Brain Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer & Neuroblastoma Carboplatin
Chemotherapeutic Agents Azacitidine
Cisplatin
Dactinomycin
Diminazene Aceturate
Doxorubicin
Epirubicin
Gemcitabine HCl
Palbociclib
Risedronate
Colorectal Cancer Oxaliplatin
Hormone Therapy Letrozole
Leukemias,Lymphomas & other Hematologic Cancers Romidepsin
Multiple Myeloma Bortezomib
Carfilzomib
Prostate Cancer Cabazitaxel
Enzalutamide
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Temsirolimus
 
Oropharyngeal
Nasal Decongestants Fluticasone Propionate / Furoate
Phenylephrine
 
Respiratory system & anti- allergics
Anti- Allergics Acrivastine
Bilastine
Buclizine
Bupivacaine HCl
Cetirizine Dihydrochloride
Chlorpheniramine Maleate ( Chlorphenamine )
Cloperastine
Desloratadine
Fexofenadine
Hydroxyzine HCl
Levocetirizine HCl
Loratadine
Rupatadine Fumarate
Triprolidine HCl
Anti- Asthma/COPD Acebrophylline
Ciclesonide
Ipratropium Bromide
Ozagrel HCl
Roflumilast
Tiotropium Bromide / Monohydrate
Erdosteine
Terbutaline Sulphate
Bronchodilators & Mast Cell Stabilizers Montelukast Sodium
 
Supplementation
Appetite Suppressant Phentermine HCl
Dietary Supplement Nicotinamide
Phosphorus Supplementation Butaphosphan
 
Surgical & Vaccines
Intravenous & Other Sterile Solutions Hydroxyethyl Starch
Maize Starch
Mucolytics, Proteolytic & Other Enzymes Serratiopeptidase
Trypsin And Chymotrypsin
Non-Ionic Iodinated Iopamidol
Clenbuterol HCl
Cyclobenzaprine HCl
Vecuronium Bromide
Peripherally Acting Muscle Relaxants Lidocaine (Lignocaine)
Myrtecaine
 
Veterinary list
Veterinary Albendazole
Buparvaquone
Butaphosphan
Clorsulon
Diminazene Diaceturate
Quinapyramine Chloride / Sulphate
Triclabendazole
 
We manufacture
  Adenosylcobalamin
  Beclomethasone Dipropionate
  Betamethasone Valerate
  Betamethasone Dipropionate
  Betamethasone Sodium Phosphate
  Clobetasol Propionate
  Deflazacort
  Diacerein
  Hydrocortisone Acetate
  Hydroxycobalamin
  Methyl Prednisolone Acetate
  Methyl Prednisolone Base
 

Summary By Fucntion

Gastrointestinal tract / Alimentary system
Antacids, Antireflux Agents & Antiulcerants Homatropine Methylbromide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homatropine_methylbromide

Homatropine methylbromide (INN; also known as methylhomatropine bromide) is a quaternary ammonium salt of methylhomatropine. It is a peripherally acting anticholinergic medication that inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and thus the parasympathetic nervous system. It does not cross the blood–brain barrier. It is used to effectively relieve intestinal spasms and abdominal cramps, without producing the adverse effects of less specific anticholinergics.It is used, in addition to papaverine, as a component of mild drugs that help "flush" the bile.

Certain preparations of drugs such as hydrocodone are mixed with a small, sub-therapeutic amount of homatropine methylbromide to discourage intentional overdose.

 

Mesalazine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesalazine

Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is generally used for mildly to moderately severe disease. It is taken by mouth or rectally.The formulations which are taken by mouth appear to be similarly effective.

It is used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is generally used for mildly to moderately severe disease. It is taken by mouth or rectally. Thformulations which are taken by mouth appear to be similarly effective.

 

Rebamipide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebamipide

Rebamipide, an amino acid derivative of 2-(1H)-quinolinone, is used for mucosal protection, healing of gastroduodenal ulcers, and treatment of gastritis.It works by enhancing mucosal defense, scavenging free radicals and temporarily activating genes encoding cyclooxygenase-2

Studies have shown that rebamipide can fight the damaging effects of NSAIDs on the GIT mucosa and more recently, the small intestine, but not for naproxen-induced gastric damage.
 

Sucralfate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucralfate

Sucralfate, sold under various brand names, is a medication
 used to treat stomach ulcersgastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), radiation proctitis, and stomach inflammation and to prevent stress ulcers. Its usefulness in people infected by H. pylori is limited. It is used by mouth and rectally

Sucralfate is a locally acting substance that in an acidic environment (pH < 4) reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form a cross-linking, viscous, paste-like material capable of acting as an acid buffer for as long as 6 to 8 hours after a single dose. It also attaches to proteins on the surface of ulcers, such as albumin and fibrinogen, to form stable insoluble complexes. These complexes serve as protective barriers at the ulcer surface, preventing further damage from acid, pepsin, and bile In addition, sucralfate prevents back diffusion of hydrogen ions, and adsorbs both pepsin and bile acids.

It has been thought that sucralfate also stimulates the production of prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factors (EGF), bFGF, and gastric mucus

Magaldrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magaldrate

Magaldrate (INN) is a common antacid drug that is used for the treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers, esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux.Magaldrate is a hydroxymagnesium aluminate complex that is converted rapidly by gastric acid into Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3, which are absorbed poorly and thus provide a sustained antacid effect.
Constipation & Bowel Cleansers Docusate Sodium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Docusate

Docusate is the common chemical and pharmaceutical name of the anion bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, also commonly called dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS).

Salts of this anion, especially docusate sodium, are widely used in medicine as laxatives and as stool softeners, by mouth or rectally.Docusate sodium is on the WHO List of Essential Medicines. It is a widely available and relatively inexpensive generic medication, with more than six million prescriptions in the US in 2017.Other docusate salts with medical use include those of calcium, sodium, and potassium.

Docusate salts are also used as food additives, emulsifiers, dispersants, and wetting agents, among other uses

  Prucalopride Succinate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prucalopride

Prucalopride, brand name Prudac, among others, is a drug acting as a selective, high affinity 5-HT4 receptor agonist which targets the impaired motility associated with chronic constipation, thus normalizing bowel movements. Prucalopride was approved for use in Europe in 2009,in Canada in 2011 and in Israel in 2014 but has only been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. The drug has also been tested for the treatment of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
  Bisacodyl
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisacodyl

Bisacodyl (INN) is an organic compound that is used as a stimulant laxative drug. It works directly on the colon to produce a bowel movement. It is typically prescribed for relief of episodic and chronic constipation and for the management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction, as well as part of bowel preparation before medical examinations, such as for a colonoscopy.

Bisacodyl is a derivative of triphenylmethane. It was first used as a laxative in 1953 because of its structural similarity to phenolphthalein.Bisacodyl works by stimulating enteric nerves to cause peristalsis, i.e., colonic contractions. It is also a contact laxative; it increases fluid and salt secretion. The action of bisacodyl on the small intestine is negligible; stimulant laxatives mainly promote evacuation of the colon.

.
Dissolution Of Cholestrol - Rich Gallstones Ursodeoxycholic Acid
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ursodeoxycholic_acid

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also known as ursodiol, is a secondary bile acid, produced in humans and most other species from metabolism by intestinal bacteria. It is synthesized in the liver in some species, and was first identified in bear bile, which is the derivation of its name Ursus. In purified form, it has been used to treat or prevent several diseases of the liver or bile ducts.
Primary Primary bile acids are produced by the 
liver and stored in the gall bladder. When secreted into the intestine, primary bile acids can be metabolized into secondary bile acids by intestinal bacteria. Primary and secondary bile acids help the body digest fats. Ursodeoxycholic acid helps regulate cholesterol by reducing the rate at which the intestine absorbs cholesterol molecules while breaking up micelles containing cholesterol. The drug reduces cholesterol absorption and is used to dissolve (cholesterol) gallstones in patients who want an alternative to surgery.There are multiple mechanisms involved in cholestatic liver diseases.

Drug Modifying Intestinal Motility & Acid Secretions Hyoscine Butylbromide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyoscine_butylbromide

Hyoscine butylbromide, also known as scopolamine butylbromide and sold under the brandname Buscopan among others,[3] is a medication used to treat crampy abdominal pain, esophageal spasms, renal colic, and bladder spasms.It is also used to improve respiratory secretions at the end of life. Hyoscine butylbromide can be taken by mouth, injection into a muscle, or into a vein.

Hyoscine butylbromide is effective in treating crampy abdominal pain.Hyoscine butylbromide is effective in reducing the duration of the first stage of labour, and it is not associated with any obvious adverse outcomes in mother or neonate.It is also used during abdominal or pelvic MRI or CT scans to improve the quality of pictures.

Metoclopramide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metoclopramide

Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems It is commonly used to treat and prevent nausea and vomiting, to help with emptying of the stomach in people with delayed stomach emptying, and to help with gastroesophageal reflux disease.It is also used to treat migraine headaches

In 2012, metoclopramide was one of the top 100 most prescribed medications in the United States.It is available as a generic medication.It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines In 2017, it was the 253rd most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than one million prescriptions.

Mosapride citrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosapride

Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist. The major active metabolite of mosapride, known as M1, additionally acts as a 5HT3 antagonist, which accelerates gastric emptying throughout the whole of the gastrointestinal tract in humans, and is used for the treatment of gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. It is recommended to be taken on an empty stomach (i.e. at least one hour before food or two hours after food).

H2 Blockers & Ulcer Healing Drugs Esomeprazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esomeprazole

Esomeprazole, sold under the brand names Nexium among others,[2] is a medication which reduces stomach acid. It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth or injection into a vein.

Lansoprazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansoprazole

Lansoprazole, sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which reduces stomach acid. It is used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth.Onset is over a few hours and effects last up to a couple of daysIt is a racemic 1:1 mixture of the enantiomers dexlansoprazole and levolansoprazole. Dexlansoprazole is an enantiomerically pure active ingredient of a commercial drug as a result of the enantiomeric shift. Lansoprazole's plasma elimination half-life (1.5 h) is not proportional to the duration of the drug's effects to the person (i.e. gastric acid suppression).

Omeprazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omeprazole

Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.It is also used to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people who are at high risk. Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) and its effectiveness is similar to other PPIs. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.Omeprazole contains a tricoordinated sulfinyl sulfur in a pyramidal structure and therefore can exist as either the (S)- or (R)-enantiomers. Omeprazole is a racemate, an equal mixture of the two. In the acidic conditions of the canaliculi of parietal cells, both enantiomers are converted to achiral products (sulfenic acid and sulfenamide configurations) which react with a cysteine group in H+/K+ ATPase, thereby inhibiting the ability of the parietal cells to produce gastric acid.

Pantoprazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantoprazole

Pantoprazole, sold under the brand name Protonix among others, is a medication used for the treatment of stomach ulcers, short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, and pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It may also be used along with other medications to eliminate Helicobacter pylori. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is available by mouth and by injection into a vein.

Rabeprazole sodium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabeprazole

Rabeprazole, sold under the brand name Aciphex, among others, is a medication that decreases stomach acid.It is used to treat peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and excess stomach acid production such as in Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. It may also be used in combination with other medications to treat Helicobacter pylori. Effectiveness is similar to other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is taken by mouth.Rabeprazole is classified as a substituted benzimidazole, like omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. Rabeprazole possess properties of both acids and bases, making it an amphotere.The acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the pyridine nitrogen is about equal to 5.

Ranitidine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranitidine

Ranitidine, sold under the trade name Zantac among others, is a medication that decreases stomach acid production. It is commonly used in treatment of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. There is also tentative evidence of benefit for hives. It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, or by injection into a veinRanitidine is a competitive, reversible inhibitor of the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors found in gastric parietal cells. This results in decreased gastric acid secretion and gastric volume, and reduced hydrogen ion concentration.

Non Specific Antidiarrhoeal Agents Loperamide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loperamide

Loperamide, sold under the brand name Imodium, among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea. It is often used for this purpose in, inflammatory bowel disease, and short bowel syndrome. It is not recommended for those with blood in the stool, mucus in the stool or fevers. The medication is taken by mouth.

Loperamide is an opioid-receptor agonist and acts on the μ-opioid receptors in the myenteric plexus of the large intestine. It works like morphine, decreasing the activity of the myenteric plexus, which decreases the tone of the longitudinal and circular smooth muscles of the intestinal wall. This increases the time material stays in the intestine, allowing more water to be absorbed from the fecal matter. It also decreases colonic mass movements and suppresses the gastrocolic reflex.

Loperamide's circulation in the bloodstream is limited in two ways. Efflux by P-glycoprotein in the intestinal wall reduces passage of loperamide, and the fraction of drug crossing is then further reduced through first-pass metabolism by the liver.Loperamide metabolizes into an MPTP-like compound, but is unlikely to exert neurotoxicity.

Racecadotril
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racecadotril

Racecadotril, also known as acetorphan, is an antidiarrheal drug which acts as a peripheral enkephalinase inhibitor.Unlike other opioid medications used to treat diarrhea, which reduce intestinal motility, racecadotril has an antisecretory effect — it reduces the secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestine. It is available in France (where it was first introduced in ~1990) and other European countries (including Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Russia and the Czech Republic) as well as most of South America and some South East Asian countries (including China, India and Thailand), but not in the United States. It is sold under the tradename Hidrasec, among others. Thiorphan is the active metabolite of racecadotril, which exerts the bulk of its inhibitory actions on enkephalinases.

Enkephalins are peptides produced by the body that act on opioid receptors with preference for the δ subtype.[ Activation of δ receptors inhibits the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, decreasing intracellular levels of the messenger molecule cAMP.

The active metabolite of racecadotril, thiorphan, inhibits enkephalinase enzymes in the intestinal epithelium with an IC50 of 6.1 nM, protecting enkephalins from being broken down by these enzymes. (Racecadotril itself is much less potent at 4500 nM. This reduces diarrhea related hypersecretion in the small intestine without influencing basal secretion. Racecadotril also has no influence on the time substances, bacteria or virus particles stay in the intestine.

Rifaximin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rifaximin

Rifaximin, sold under the trade name Xifaxan among others, is an antibiotic used to treat traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. It has poor absorption when taken by mouth.

Rifaximin interferes with transcription by binding to the β-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase. This results in the blockage of the translocation step that normally follows the formation of the first phosphodiester bond, which occurs in the transcription process.[ This in turn results in a reduction of bacteria populations, including gas producing bacteria, which may reduce mucosal inflammation, epithelial dysfunction and visceral hypersensitivity. Rifaximin has broad spectrum antibacterial properties against both gram positive and gram negative anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. As a result of bile acid solubility, its antibacterial action is limited mostly to the small intestine and less so the colon. A resetting of the bacteria composition has also been suggested as a possible mechanism of action for relief of IBS symptoms.Additionally, rifaximin may have a direct anti-inflammatory effect on gut mucosa via modulation of the pregnane X receptor.

Other mechanisms for its therapeutic properties include inhibition of bacterial translocation across the epithelial lining of the intestine, inhibition of adherence of bacteria to the epithelial cells and a reduction in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

Trimethoprim
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trimethoprim

Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of bladder infections.Other uses include for middle ear infections and travelers' diarrhea With sulfamethoxazole or dapsone it may be used for Pneumocystis pneumonia in people with HIV/AIDS It is taken by mouth.Trimethoprim binds to dihydrofolate reductase and inhibits the reduction of dihydrofolic acid (DHF) to tetrahydrofolic acid (THF).THF is an essential precursor in the thymidine synthesis pathway and interference with this pathway inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis.Trimethoprim's affinity for bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is several thousand times greater than its affinity for human dihydrofolate reductase. Sulfamethoxazole inhibits dihydropteroate synthase, an enzyme involved further upstream in the same pathway. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used in combination due to possible synergistic effects, and reduced development of resistance.This benefit has been questioned.

Probiotics Saccharomyces Boulardii
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharomyces_boulardii

Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical species of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. Although early reports described distinct taxonomic, metabolic, and genetic properties S. boulardii is a strain of S. cerevisiae, sharing >99% genomic relatedness, giving the synonym S. cerevisiae var boulardii. A type strain is Hansen CBS 5926.

S. boulardii is sometimes used as a probiotic with the purpose of introducing beneficial microbes into the large and small intestines and conferring protection against pathogens.It grows at 37 °C (98.6 °F).In addition, the popular genome-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 was proven to be effective in S. boulardii.[9] Boulard first isolated this yeast after he observed natives of Southeast Asia chewing on the skin of lychee and mangosteen in an attempt to control the symptoms of cholera. In healthy patients, S. boulardii has been shown to be nonpathogenic and nonsystemic (it remains in the gastrointestinal tract rather than spreading elsewhere in the body).

 

Prokinetic Agent Cisapride Monohydrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisapride

Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It acts directly as a serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist and indirectly as a parasympathomimetic. Stimulation of the serotonin receptors increases acetylcholine release in the enteric nervous system. It has been sold under the trade names Prepulsid (Janssen-Ortho) and Propulsid (in the United States). It was discovered by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1980. In many countries, it has been either withdrawn from the market or had its indications limited due to incidences of serious cardiac side-effects.

The commercial preparations of this drug are the racemic mixture of both enantiomers of the compound. The (+) enantiomer itself has the major pharmacologic effects and does not induce many of the detrimental side-effects of the mixture.

Mosapride citrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosapride

Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist. The major active metabolite
 of mosapride, known as M1, additionally acts as a 5HT3 antagonist, which accelerates gastric emptying throughout the whole of the gastrointestinal tract in humans, and is used for the treatment of gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. It is recommended to be taken on an empty stomach (i.e. at least one hour before food or two hours after food).
   
Antibiotics
Anthelmintics Albendazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albendazole

Albendazole, also known as albendazolum, is a medication used for the treatment of a variety of parasitic worm infestations. It is useful for giardiasis, trichuriasis, filariasis, neurocysticercosis, hydatid disease, pinworm disease, and ascariasis, among other diseases It is taken by mouth.

As a vermicide, albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of β-tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules (it binds much better to the β-tubulin of parasites than that of mammals). Albendazole leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the susceptible parasites, and depletes their glycogen stores. Albendazole also prevents the formation of spindle fibers needed for cell division, which in turn blocks egg production and development; existing eggs are prevented from hatching.Cell motility, maintenance of cell shape, and intracellular transport are also disrupted. At higher concentrations, it disrupts the helminths' metabolic pathways by inhibiting metabolic enzymes such as malate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase, with inhibition of the latter leading to less energy produced by the Krebs cycle.Due to diminished ATP production, the parasite is immobilized and eventually dies.

Some parasites have evolved to have some resistance to albendazole by having a different set of acids comprising β-tubulin, decreasing the binding affinity of albendazole.Drosophilia have many of the same mutations, meaning the drug does not affect fruit flies.

 

Febantel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenbendazole

Fenbendazole is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic used against gastrointestinal parasites including: giardia, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, the tapeworm genus Taenia (but not effective against Dipylidium caninum, a common dog tapeworm), pinworms, aelurostrongylus, paragonimiasis, strongyles, and strongyloides that can be administered to sheep, cattle, horses, fish, dogs, cats, rabbits, and seals.Fenbendazole is metabolized in the liver to oxfendazole, which is anthelmintic too; oxfendazole partially gets reduced back to fenbendazole in the liver and rumen.Also, fenbendazole itself is an active metabolite of another anthelmintic drug, febantel.
Mebendazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mebendazole

Mebendazole (MBZ) is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infestations.This includes ascariasis, pinworm disease, hookworm infections, guinea worm infections, hydatid disease, and giardia, among others.It is taken by mouth.

Mebendazole is usually well tolerated.Common side effects include headache, vomiting, and ringing in the ears0">ringing .If used at large doses it may cause bone marrow suppressionone marrow suppression.[3]< It is unclear if it is safe in pregnancy. Mebendazole is a broad-spectrum antihelminthic agent of the benzimidazole type.

Mebendazole works by selectively inhibiting the synthesis ofiting the synthesis of microtubules via binding to colchicine binding site of β-tubulin, thereby blocking polymerisation of tubulin Disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules leads to blocking the uptake of glucose and other nutrients, resulting in the gradual immobilization and eventual death of the helminths. Poor absorption in digestive tract makes mebendazole an efficient drug for treating intestinal parasitic infections with limited adverse effects. However mebendazole has impact on mammalian cells mostly by inhibiting polymeration ofbiting polymeration of tubulin dimers, thereby disrupting essential microtubule structures such as mito. Disassembly of mitotic spindle then leads to apoptosis mediated via dephosphorylation of Bcl-2 which allows pro-apoptotic protein Bax to dimerize and innitiate programmed cell death.

Nitazoxanide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitazoxanide

Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthic, protozoal, and viral infections. It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths; emerging evidence suggests that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well.

Chemically, nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, a class of drugs which are synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivatives with antiparasitic and antiviral activity.Tizoxanide, an active metabolite of nitazoxanide in humans, is also an antiparasitic drug of the thiazolide class.

The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism. PFOR inhibition may also contribute to its activity against anaerobic bacteria.

It has also been shown to have activity against influenza A virus in vitro. The mechanism appears to be by selectively blocking the maturation of the viral hemagglutinin at a stage preceding resistance to endoglycosidase H digestion. This impairs hemagglutinin intracellular trafficking and insertion of the protein into the host plasma membrane.

Nitazoxanide modulates a variety of other pathways in vitro, including glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate-gated chloride ion channels in nematodes, respiration and other pathways in bacteria and cancer cells, and viral and host transcriptional factors.

Antifungals Anidulafungin
ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anidulafungin

Anidulafungin (INN) (trade names Eraxis, Ecalta) is a semisynthetic echinocandin used as an antifungal drug. It was previously known as LY303366.[3][4][5] It may also have application in treating invasive Aspergillus infection when used in combination with Voriconazole.It is a member of the class of antifungal drugs known as the echinocandins; its mechanism of action is by inhibition of (1→3)-β-D-glucan synthase, an enzyme important to the synthesis of the fungal cell wall.Anidulafungin inhibits glucan synthase, an enzyme important in the formation of (1→3)-β-D-glucan, a major fungal cell wall component. Glucan synthase is not present in mammalian cells, so it is an attractive target for antifungal activity.

Eberconazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eberconazole

Eberconazole is an antifungal drug. As a 1% topical cream, it is an effective treatment for dermatophytosis, candidiasis, and pityriasis.It was approved for use in Spain in 2015 and is sold under the trade name Ebernet.

Fluconazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluconazole

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis versicolor.It is also used to prevent candidiasis in those who are at high risk such as following organ transplantation, low birth weight babies, and those with low blood neutrophil counts. It is given either by mouth or by injection into a vein.
Like other 
imidazole- and triazole-class antifungals, fluconazole inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase. Mammalian demethylase activity is much less sensitive to fluconazole than fungal demethylase. This inhibition prevents the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane, and subsequent accumulation of 14α-methyl sterols.Fluconazole is primarily fungistatic; however, it may be fungicidal against certain organisms in a dose-dependent manner, specifically Cryptococcus.

Ketoconazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketoconazole

Ketoconazole, sold under the brand name Nizoral among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections. Applied to the skin it is used for fungal skin infections such as tinea, cutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, dandruff, and seborrheic dermatitis.Taken by mouth it is a less preferred option and only recommended for severe infections when other agents cannot be used. Other uses include in the treatment of excessive hair growth and Cushing's syndrome.As an antifungal, ketoconazole is structurally similar to imidazole, and interferes with the fungal synthesis of ergosterol, a constituent of fungal cell membranes, as well as certain enzymes. As with all azole antifungal agents, ketoconazole works principally by inhibiting the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51A1). This enzyme participates in the sterol biosynthesis pathway that leads from lanosterol to ergosterol.
Luliconazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luliconazole

Luliconazole, trade names Luzu among others, is an imidazole antifungal medication. As a 1% topical cream, It is indicated for the treatment of athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm caused y dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum.

Micafungin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micafungin

Micafungin (trade name Mycamine) is an echinocandin antifungal drug used to treat and prevent invasive fungal infections including candidemia, abscesses and esophageal candidiasis. It inhibits the production of beta-1,3-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. Micafungin is administered intravenously. It received final approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on March 16, 2005, and gained approval in the European Union on April 25, 2008.

Sodium Posaconazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posaconazole

Posaconazole, sold under the brand names Noxafil and Posanol is a triazole antifungal medication.

It was approved for medical use in the United States in September 2006, and is available as a generic medication.

Posaconazole works by disrupting the close packing of acyl chains of phospholipids, impairing the functions of certain membrane-bound enzyme systems such as ATPase and enzymes of the electron transport system, thus inhibiting growth of the fungi. It does this by blocking the synthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting of the enzyme lanosterol 14α-demethylase and accumulation of methylated sterol precursors. Posaconazole is significantly more potent at inhibiting 14-alpha demethylase than itraconazole.

Tavaborole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tavaborole

Tavaborole, sold under the brand name Kerydin, is a topical antifungal medication for the treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the nail and nail bed. Tavaborole began phase III clinical trials in December 2010 and was approved by the US FDA in July 2014.The medication inhibits an essential fungal enzyme, leucyl-tRNA synthetase, that is required for protein synthesis. The inhibition of protein synthesis leads to termination of cell growth and then cell death, eliminating the fungal infection.

Tavaborole, when prepared with a 1:1 mixture of ethyl acetate and propylene glycol, has the ability to fully penetrate through the human nail.[citation needed] In studies with cadaver fingernails, a 5% solution of tavaborole penetrated the nail an average of 524.7 mcg/cm2 after two weeks of daily use.

Tavaborole is detectable in the blood at a level of 3.54 ng/mL after a single use of 0.2 mL of the 5% solution. Tavaborole has an elimination half-life of 28.5 hours, a maximum concentration of 5.17 ng/mL after two weeks of daily use, and takes 8 days to reach the maximum concentration.

Itraconazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itraconazole

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections. This includes aspergillosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.

The mechanism of action of itraconazole is the same as the other azole antifungals: it inhibits the fungal-mediated synthesis of ergosterol, via inhibition of lanosterol 14α-demethylase. Because of its ability to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 CC-3, caution should be used when considering interactions with other medications.

Itraconazole is pharmacologically distinct from other azole antifungal agents in that it is the only inhibitor in this class that has been shown to inhibit both the hedgehog signaling pathway and angiogenesis These distinct activities are unrelated to inhibition of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase and the exact molecular targets responsible remain unidentified. Functionally, the antiangiogenic activity of itraconazole has been shown to be linked to inhibition of glycosylation, VEGFR2 phosphorylation, trafficking, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. Evidence suggests the structural determinants for inhibition of hedgehog signaling by itraconazole are recognizably different from those associated with antiangiogenic activity.

Antimalarial Drug Lumefantrine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumefantrine

Lumefantrine (or benflumetol) is an antimalarial drug. It is only used in combination with artemether. The term "co-artemether" is sometimes used to describe this combination. Lumefantrine has a much longer half-life compared to artemether, and is therefore thought to clear any residual parasites that remain after combination treatment.

Antiretroviral Abacavir Sulphate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abacavir

Abacavir, sold under the brand name Ziagen, is a medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.[1][2] Similar to other nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), abacavir is used together with other HIV medications, and is not recommended by itself. It is taken by mouth as a tablet or solution and may be used in children over the age of three months.Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that inhibits viral replication. It is a guanosine analogue that is phosphorylated to carbovir triphosphate (CBV-TP). CBV-TP competes with the viral molecules and is incorporated into the viral DNA. Once CBV-TP is integrated into the viral DNA, transcription and HIV reverse transcriptase is inhibited.

Atazanavir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atazanavir

Atazanavir, sold under the trade name Reyataz among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS. It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.It may be used for prevention after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure. It is taken by mouth once a day..Atazanavir binds to the active site HIV protease and prevents it from cleaving the pro-form of viral proteins into the working machinery of the virus.If the HIV protease enzyme does not work, the virus is not infectious, and no mature virions are made.The azapeptide drug was designed as an analog of the peptide chain substrate that HIV protease would cleave normally into active viral proteins. More specifically, atazanavir is a structural analog of the transition state during which the bond between a phenylalanine and proline is broken.Humans do not have any enzymes that break bonds between phenylalanine and proline, so this drug will not target human enzymes.

Efavirenz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efavirenz

Efavirenz (EFV), sold under the brand names Sustiva among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS.It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.It may be used for prevention after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure.It is sold both by itself and in combination as efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir..

Efavirenz falls in the NNRTI class of antiretrovirals. Both nucleoside and non-nucleoside RTIs inhibit the same target, the reverse transcriptase enzyme, an essential viral enzyme which transcribes viral RNA into DNA. Unlike nucleoside RTIs, which bind at the enzyme's active site, NNRTIs act allosterically by binding to a distinct site away from the active site known as the NNRTI pocket.

Efavirenz is not effective against HIV-2, as the pocket of the HIV-2 reverse transcriptase has a different structure, which confers intrinsic resistance to the NNRTI class.

As most NNRTIs bind within the same pocket, viral strains which are resistant to efavirenz are usually also resistant to the other NNRTIs, nevirapine and delavirdine. The most common mutation observed after efavirenz treatment is K103N, which is also observed with other NNRTIs. Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and efavirenz have different binding targets, so cross-resistance is unlikely; the same is true with regard to efavirenz and protease inhibitors.

 

 

Darunavir (Amorphous / Ethanolate / Sodium)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darunavir

Darunavir (DRV), sold under the brand name Prezista among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS.[1] It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.It is often used with low doses of ritonavir or cobicistat to increase darunavir levels.Darunavir is a nonpeptidic inhibitor of protease (PR) that lodges itself in the active site of PR
 through a number of hydrogen bonds.It was developed to increase interactions with HIV-1 protease and
 to be more resistant against HIV-1 protease mutations. With a K
d (dissociation constant) of 4.5 x
 10
−12 M, darunavir has a much stronger interaction with PR and its dissociation constant is 1/100 to 1/1000 of other protease inhibitors.This strong interaction comes from increased hydrogen bonds between darunavir and the backbone of the PR active site (Figure 2). Darunavir's structure allows it to create more hydrogen bonds with the PR active site than most PIs that have been developed and approved by the FDA Furthermore, the backbone of HIV-1 protease maintains its spatial conformation in the presence of mutations.Because darunavir interacts with this stable portion of the protease, the PR-PI interaction is less likely to be disrupted by a mutation.

Indinavir Sulphate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indinavir

Indinavir (IDV; trade name Crixivan, made by Merck) is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS. It is soluble white powder administered orally in combination with other antiviral drugs. The drug prevents protease from functioning normally. Consequently, HIV viruses cannot reproduce, causing a decrease in the viral load. Commercially sold indinavir is indinavir anhydrous, which is indinavir with an additional amine in the hydroxyethylene backbone. This enhances its solubility and oral bioavailability, making it easier for users to intake. It was synthetically produced for the purpose of inhibiting the protease in the HIV virus.

Oseltamivir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oseltamivir

Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).Many medical organizations recommend it in people who have complications or are at high risk of complications within 48 hours of first symptoms of infection.They recommend it to prevent infection in those at high risk, but not the general population.Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, a competitive inhibitor of influenza's neuraminidase enzyme. The enzyme cleaves the sialic acid which is found on glycoproteins on the surface of human cells that helps new virions to exit the cell. Thus oseltamivir prevents new viral particles from being released.

Rilpivirine HCl
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rilpivirine

Rilpivirine (TMC278, trade name Edurant) is a pharmaceutical drug, developed by Tibotec, for the treatment of HIV infection.It is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with higher potency, longer half-life and reduced side-effect profile compared with older NNRTIs, such as efavirenz.

Ritonavir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritonavir

Ritonavir (RTV), sold under the brand name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.[1] This combination treatment is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).Often a low dose is used with other protease inhibitors.It may also be used in combination with other medications for hepatitis C.It is taken by mouth.The capsules of the medication do not work the same as the tablets.

Ritonavir was originally developed as an inhibitor of HIV protease, one of a family of pseudo-C2-symmetric small molecule inhibitors.[citation needed]

Ritonavir is now rarely used for its own antiviral activity but remains widely used as a booster of other protease inhibitors. More specifically, ritonavir is used to inhibit a particular enzyme, in intestines, liver, and elsewhere, that normally metabolizes protease inhibitors, cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4).The drug binds to and inhibits CYP3A4, so a low dose can be used to enhance other protease inhibitors. This discovery drastically reduced the adverse effects and improved the efficacy of protease inhibitors and HAART. However, because of the general role of CYP3A4 in xenobiotic metabolism, dosing with ritonavir also affects the efficacy of numerous other medications, adding to the challenge of prescribing drugs concurrently.

 

Saquinavir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saquinavir

Saquinavir (SQV), sold under the brand names Invirase and Fortovase, is an antiretroviral drug used together with other medications to treat or prevent HIV/AIDS.Typically it is used with ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir to increase its effect.It is taken by mouth.Saquinavir binds to the active site of the viral protease and prevents cleavage of viral polyproteins, preventing maturation of the virus. Saquinavir inhibits both HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases.

Simeprevir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simeprevir

Simeprevir, sold under the trade names Olysio among others, is a medication used in combination with other medications for the treatment of hepatitis C.It is specifically used for hepatitis C genotype 1 and 4.Medications it is used with include sofosbuvir or ribavirin and peginterferon-alfa.Cure rates are in 80s to 90s percent.It may be used in those who also have HIV/AIDS.It is taken by mouth once daily for typically 12 weeks..Simeprevir is a NS3/4A protease inhibitor, thus preventing viral maturation through inhibition of protein synthesis. Simeprevir is administered as one capsule once daily with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of genotype 1 or genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C in adult people with compensated liver disease (including cirrhosis), with or without HIV-1 co-infection, who are treatment naive or who have failed previous interferon therapy.Genotype 1 is the most prevalent form of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide.

Tenofovir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenofovir_disoproxil

Tenofovir disoproxil, sold under the trade name Viread among others, is a medication used to treat chronic hepatitis B and to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.It may be used for prevention of HIV/AIDS among those at high risk before exposure, and after a needlestick injury or other potential exposure.It is sold both by itself and together as emtricitabine/tenofovir and efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir.It does not cure HIV/AIDS or hepatitis B.It is available by mouth as a tablet or powder.enofovir disoproxil is a nucleotide analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI).It selectively inhibits viral reverse transcriptase, a crucial enzyme in retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), while showing limited inhibition of human enzymes, such as DNA polymerases α, β, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.In vivo tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is converted to tenofovir, an acyclic analog of deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate (d-AMP). Tenofovir lacks a hydroxyl group in the position corresponding to the 3' carbon of the d-AMP, preventing the formation of the 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation.Once incorporated into a growing DNA strand, tenofovir causes premature termination of DNA transcription, preventing viral.

Antivirals Acyclovir

Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an 
antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles. Other uses include prevention of cytomegalovirus infections following transplant and severe complications of Epstein-Barr virus infection.It can be taken by mouth, applied as a cream, or injected.Aciclovir is converted by viral thymidine kinase to aciclovir monophosphate, which is then converted by host cell kinases to aciclovir triphosphate (ACV-TP). ACV-TP, in turn, competitively inhibits and inactivates HSV-specified DNA polymerases preventing further viral DNA synthesis without affecting the normal cellular processes.

Lamivudine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamivudine

Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. It is also used to treat chronic hepatitis B when other options are not possible. It is effective against both HIV-1 and HIV-2. It is typically used in combination with other antiretrovirals such as zidovudine and abacavir. Lamivudine may be included as part of post-exposure prevention in those who have been potentially exposed to HIV. Lamivudine is taken by mouth as a liquid or tablet.

Lamivudine is an analogue of cytidine. It can inhibit both types (1 and 2) of HIV reverse transcriptase and also the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B virus. It is phosphorylated to active metabolites that compete for incorporation into viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme competitively and act as a chain terminator of DNA synthesis. The lack of a 3'-OH group in the incorporated nucleoside analogue prevents the formation of the 5' to 3' phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, and therefore, the viral DNA growth is terminated.

Lamivudine is administered by mouth, and it is rapidly absorbed with a bio-availability of over 80%. Some research suggests that lamivudine can cross the blood–brain barrier. Lamivudine is often given in combination with zidovudine, with which it is highly synergistic. Lamivudine treatment has been shown to restore zidovudine sensitivity of previously resistant HIV. Lamivudine showed no evidence of carcinogenicity or mutagenicity in in vivo studies in mice and rats at doses from 10 to 58 times those used in humans.

Valacyclovir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valaciclovir

Valaciclovir, also spelled valacyclovir, is an antiviral medication used to treat outbreaks of herpes simplex or herpes zoster (shingles).It is also used to prevent cytomegalovirus following a kidney transplant in high risk cases. It is taken by mouth.

Aciclo-GTP, the active triphosphate metabolite of aciclovir, is a very potent inhibitor of viral DNA replication. Aciclo-GTP competitively inhibits and inactivates the viral DNA polymerase.Its monophosphate form also incorporates into the viral DNA, resulting in chain termination. It has also been shown that the viral enzymes cannot remove aciclo-GMP from the chain, which results in inhibition of further activity of DNA polymerase. Aciclo-GTP is fairly rapidly metabolized within the cell, possibly by cellular phosphatases.Aciclovir is active against most species in the herpesvirus family.

 

Valganciclovir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valganciclovir

Valganciclovir, sold under the brandname Valcyte among others, is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in those with HIV/AIDS or following organ transplant.[1] It is often used long term as it only suppresses rather than cures the infection. Valganciclovir is taken by mouth.[

Valganciclovir is a prodrug for ganciclovir, which is a synthetic analog of 2′-deoxy-guanosine. Its structure is the same as ganciclovir, except for the addition of a L-valyl ester at the 5' end of the incomplete deoxyribose ring. The valine increases both the absorption of the drug in the intestines, as well as the bioavailability of the drug once it is absorbed. The L-valyl ester is cleaved by esterases in the intestines and the liver, leaving ganciclovir to be absorbed by the virus-infected cells.

Ganciclovir is first phosphorylated to ganciclovir monophosphate by a viral thymidine kinase encoded by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) upon infection. Human cellular kinases further phosphorylate the molecule to create ganciclovir diphosphate, then ganciclovir triphosphate. These kinases are present in 10-fold greater concentrations in CMV or herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells compared to uninfected human cells, allowing ganciclovir triphosphate to concentrate in infected cells.

Ganciclovir triphosphate is a competitive inhibitor of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP). It is incorporated into viral DNA and preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerases more than cellular DNA polymerases. Ganciclovir triphosphate serves as a poor substrate for chain elongation. Once incorporated into viral DNA due to its structure similarity to dGTP, chain termination occurs once a single nucleotide is added to the distal hydroxyl group of the incomplete deoxyribose ring of ganciclovir.

 

Beta-Lactam Faropenem Sodium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faropenem

Faropenem is an orally active beta-lactam antibiotic belonging to the penem group. It is resistant to some forms of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. It is available for oral use.
Carbapenem Doripenem
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doripenem

Doripenem (Doribax, Finibax) is an antibiotic drug in the carbapenem class. It is a beta-lactam antibiotic drug able to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Doripenem can be used for bacterial infections such as: complex abdominal infections, pneumonia within the setting of a hospital, and complicated infections of the urinary tract including kidney infections with sepsis.

The greater stability of doripenem in aqueous solution compared to earlier members of the carbapenem class allows it to be administered as an infusion over 4 hours or more, which may be advantageous in the treatment of certain difficult-to-treat infections. It may present a lower risk of inducing seizures than other carbapenems.

 

Ertapenem
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ertapenem

Ertapenem (trade name Invanz) is a carbapenem antibiotic medication for the treatment of infections of the abdomen, the lungs, the upper part of the female reproductive system, and diabetic foot, used in the form of infusions or injections.Like all beta-lactam antibiotics, ertapenem is bactericidal. It inhibits cross-linking of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls by blocking a type of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). When a bacterial cell tries to synthesize new cell wall in order to grow and divide, the attempt fails, rendering the cell vulnerable to osmotic disruption. Additionally, the surplus of peptidoglycan precursors triggers autolytic enzymes of the bacterium, which disintegrate the existing wall.

Imipenem with cilastatin (Imipenem/cilastatin)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imipenem/cilastatin

Imipenem/cilastatin, sold under the brand name Primaxin among others, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is made from a combination of imipenem and cilastatin. Specifically it is used for pneumonia, sepsis, endocarditis, joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, and urinary tract infections. It is given by injection into a vein or muscle.

Imipenem/cilastatin has the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Imipenem is the active antibiotic agent and works by interfering with their ability to form cell walls, so the bacteria break up and die.

Imipenem is rapidly degraded by the renal enzyme dehydropeptidase if administered alone (making it less effective); the metabolites can cause kidney damage. Imipenem is a broad-spectrum betalactam antibiotic used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. Because imipenem is rapidly inactivated by renal dehydropeptidase I, it is given in combination with cilastatin, a DHP-I inhibitor which increases half-life and tissue penetration of imipenem.

 

Meropenem Trihydrate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meropenem

Meropenem, sold under the brandname Merrem among others, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Some of these include meningitis, intra-abdominal infection, pneumonia, sepsis, and anthrax. It is given by injection into a vein.

Meropenem is bactericidal except against Listeria monocytogenes, where it is bacteriostatic. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis like other β-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to other beta-lactams, it is highly resistant to degradation by β-lactamases or cephalosporinases. In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or resistance to diffusion across the bacterial outer membrane. Unlike imipenem, it is stable to dehydropeptidase-1, so can be given without cilastatin.

In 2016, a synthetic peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO) was found to inhibit the expression of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, an enzyme that many drug-resistant bacteria use to destroy carbapenems.

Drugs used in Ornidazole Protozoal Infections Tinidazole
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinidazole

Tinidazole is a drug used against protozoan infections. It is widely known throughout Europe and the developing world as a treatment for a variety of amoebic and parasitic infections. It was developed in 1972 and is a prominent member of the nitroimidazole antibiotic class.A large body of clinical data exists to support use of tinidazole for infections from amoebae, giardia, and trichomonas, just like metronidazole. Tinidazole may be a therapeutic alternative in the setting of metronidazole intolerance. Tinidazole may also be used to treat a variety of other bacterial infections (e.g., as part of combination therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication protocols).
Metronidazole Benzoate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metronidazole

Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is used either alone or with other antibiotics to treat pelvic inflammatory disease, endocarditis, and bacterial vaginosis. It is effective for dracunculiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and amebiasis. It is an option for a first episode of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile colitis if vancomycin or fidaxomicin is unavailable.
Metronidazole is of the nitroimidazole class. It inhibits nucleic acid synthesis by forming nitroso radicals