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Aroma Compounds and Flavorings
GMP / Pharma / Aroma Compound / Essential Oil / GRAS / Flavorings / Oral Hygiene / Perfume

  • Anise oil
    - Anise oil F Ph.Eur EU-GMP

  • Camphor
    - Camphor racemic Ph.Eur. GMP
    - Camphor natural Ph.Eur. GMP

  • Citronella oil
    - Citronella oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Lemon oil
    - Lemon oil F Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Cineole
    - Cineole rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Eucalyptus oil
    - Eucalyptus oil 70 Ph.Eur. GMP
    - Eucalyptus oi- Eucalyptus oil 80/85 Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Bitter fennel oil
    - Bitter fennel oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Pine oil
    - Pine oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Caraway oil
    - Caraway oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Lavender oil
    - Lavender oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP
    - Spike Lavender oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • L-Menthol
    - L-Menthol Ph.Eur./USP GMP
    - Mint oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Clove oil
    - Clove oil F Ph.Eur EU-GMP

  • Peppermint oil
    - Peppermint oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Rosemary oil
    - Rosemary oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Sage oil
    - Sage oil Spanish rect. Ph.Eur EU-GMP
    - Sage oil Dalm. rect. Ph.Helv EU-GMP

  • Turpentine oil
    - Turpentine oil stab. rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Thyme oil
    - Thyme oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

  • Dwarf Pine oil
    - Dwarf Pine oil Ph. Eur. EU-GMP

  • Cinnamon bark oil
    - Cinnamon bark oil F Ph.Eur EU-GMP

 


Fragrance bottles
Fragrance bottles 

An Aroma compound, also known as an odorantaromafragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. For a chemical compound to have a smell or odor it must be sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose.
Generally molecules meeting this specification have molecular weights of less than 300.
[citation needed] Flavors affect both the sense of taste and smell, whereas fragrances affect only smell. Flavors tend to be naturally occurring, and fragrances tend to be synthetic.[1]
Aroma compounds can be found in foodwinespicesfloral scentperfumesfragrance oils, and essential oils. For example, many form biochemically during the ripening of fruits and other crops. In wines, most form as byproducts of fermentation. Also, many of the aroma compounds play a significant role in the production of flavorants, which are used in the food service industry to flavor, improve, and generally increase the appeal of their products.
An odorizer may add a detectable odor to a dangerous odorless substance, like propanenatural gas, or hydrogen, as a safety measure.
In 2010 the International Fragrance Association published a list of 3,059 chemicals used in 2011 based on a voluntary survey of its members. It was estimated to represent about 90% of the world's production volume of fragrances.[13]

 

An Essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (easily evaporated at normal temperatures) chemical compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oilsethereal oilsaetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An essential oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived.[1] The term "essential" used here does not mean indispensable or usable by the human body, as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid, which are so called because they are nutritionally required by a given living organism.[2]

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by using steam. Other processes include expressionsolvent extractionsfumaturaabsolute oil extraction, resin tapping, wax embedding, and cold pressing. They are used in perfumescosmeticssoaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.

Essential oils are often used for aromatherapy, a form of alternative medicine in which healing effects are ascribed to aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy may be useful to induce relaxation, but there is not sufficient evidence that essential oils can effectively treat any condition.[3] Improper use of essential oils may cause harm including allergic reactions and skin irritation, and children may be particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of improper use.[4][5]



Essential oils are used in aromatherapy as part of, for example, essential oil diffusers.

Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.[1] The concept of food additives being "generally recognized as safe" was first described in the Food Additives Amendment of 1958, and all additives introduced after this time had to be evaluated by new standards.


Natural And Artificial Flavors 

Flavorings are focused on altering the flavors of natural food product such as meats and vegetables, or creating flavor for food products that do not have the desired flavors such as candies and other snacks. Most types of flavorings are focused on scent and taste. Few commercial products exist to stimulate the trigeminal senses, since these are sharp, astringent, and typically unpleasant flavors.
Three principal types of flavorings are used in foods, under definitions agreed in the EU and Australia:

Natural flavoring substances

These flavoring substances are obtained from plant or animal raw materials, by physical, microbiological, or enzymatic processes. They can be either used in their natural state or processed for human consumption, but cannot contain any nature-identical or artificial flavoring substances.

Artificial flavoring substances

These are not identified in a natural product intended for human consumption, whether or not the product is processed. These are typically produced by fractional distillation and additional chemical manipulation of naturally sourced chemicals, crude oil, or coal tar. Although they are chemically different, in sensory characteristics they are the same as natural ones.

The compounds used to produce artificial flavors are almost identical to those that occur naturally. It has been suggested that artificial flavors may be safer to consume than natural flavors due to the standards of purity and mixture consistency that are enforced either by the company or by law.
[9] Natural flavors, in contrast, may contain impurities from their sources, while artificial flavors are typically more pure and are required to undergo more testing before being sold for consumption.[9]

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing of the teeth (dental hygiene) and cleaning between the teeth. It is important that oral hygiene be carried out on a regular basis to enable prevention of dental disease and bad breath. The most common types of dental disease are tooth decay (cavitiesdental caries) and gum diseases, including gingivitis, and periodontitis.[1]

Essential oils, found in Listerine mouthwash, contains eucalyptolmentholthymol, and methyl salicylate. CPC containing mouthwash contains cetyl pyridinium chloride, found in brands such as Colgate Plax, Crest Pro Health, Oral B Pro Health Rinse. In a meta-analyses completed in 2016, EO and CPC mouthrinses were compared and it was found that plaque and gingivitis levels were lower with EO mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque removal (toothbrushing and interdental cleaning).[52]

 

.



Proper oral hygiene requires regular brushing and flossing

Leading with Quality, Performance and Cost

Anise oil
- Anise oil F Ph.Eur EU-GMP

Anise (/ˈænɪs/; Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.

Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise, fennel, and liquorice. It is widely cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks, especially around the Mediterranean.

Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide. The yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient.Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole (80–90%), with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde, estragole and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others. Anethole is responsible for anise's characteristic odor and flavor.

 
1897 illustration[1]
Constituents: The major constituent of anise is Anethole. Other constituents include gamma-himachalene (2-4%), p-anisaldehyde (<1%), methylchavicol (0.9-1.5%), cis-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (approximately 3%), and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (approximately 1.3%).8 Pimpinella essential oils also contain mono-, sesqui- and tri-norsesquiterpenoids, propenylphenols, and pseudoisoeugenols.9

Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) Taiwan Camphor
- C
amphor racemic Ph.Eur. GMP
- Camphor natural Ph.Eur. GMP

Camphor (/ˈkæmfər/) is a waxy, flammable, transparent solid with a strong aroma. It is a terpenoid with the chemical formula C10H16O. It is found in the wood of the camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), a large evergreen tree found in Asia (particularly in Sumatra and Borneo islands, Indonesia) and also of the unrelated kapur tree (Dryobalanops sp.), a tall timber tree from the same region. It also occurs in some other related trees in the laurel family, notably Ocotea usambarensis. Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain 0.05 to 0.5% camphor, while camphorweed (Heterotheca) contains some 5%. A major source of camphor in Asia is camphor basil (the parent of African blue basil). Camphor can also be synthetically produced from oil of turpentine.

The molecule has two possible enantiomers as shown in the structural diagrams. The structure on the left is the naturally occurring (R)-form, while its mirror image shown on the right is the (S)-form.

It is used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly in India), as an embalming fluid, for medicinal purposes, and in religious ceremonies.

 

Citronella oil
- Citronella oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP


Citronella oil is an essential oil obtained from the leaves and stems of different species of Cymbopogon (lemongrass). The oil is used extensively as a source of perfumery chemicals such as citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol. These chemicals find extensive use in soap, candles and incense, perfumery, cosmetic, and flavouring industries throughout the world. Citronella oil is also a plant-based insect repellent and has been registered for this use in the United States since 1948. The United States Environmental Protection Agency considers oil of citronella as a biopesticide with a non-toxic mode of action.

Citronella oil has strong antifungal properties, and is effective in disincentivizing nuisance barking in dogs when utilized as a spray.






Cymbopogon citratus
Cymbopogon, also known as lemongrass, barbed wire grasssilky headsCochin grass or Malabar grass or oily heads, is a genus of AsianAfricanAustralian, and tropical island plants in the grass family. Some species (particularly Cymbopogon citratus) are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because of their scent, resembling that of lemons (Citrus limon). The name cymbopogon derives from the Greek words kymbe (κύμβη, 'boat') and pogon (πώγων, 'beard') "which mean [that] in most species, the hairy spikelets project from boat-shaped spathes."

(±)-Citronellal

Lemon oil
-
Lemon oil F Ph.Eur. EU-GMP


Lemon oil

The Lemon Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to South Asia, primarily North eastern India. Its fruits are round in shape.

The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses.[2] The pulp and rind are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.



A fruiting lemon tree. A blossom is also visible.

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.[3] It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant.


Vitamin C.

Citric_acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C6H8O7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
More than two million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and a 
chelating agent.

 


Citric acid.




Eucalyptol

Cineole
Cineole rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Eucalyptol is a natural organic compound that is a colorless liquid. It is a cyclic ether and a monoterpenoid.
Eucalyptol is also known by a variety of synonyms: 1,8-cineol, 1,8-cineole, cajeputol, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthane, 1,8-oxido-p-menthane, eucalyptol, eucalyptole, 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, cineol, and cineole.
In 1870, F. S. Cloez identified and ascribed the name "eucalyptol" to the dominant portion of Eucalyptus globulus oil.
[1]




Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii
Eucalyptus globulus, commonly known as southern blue gum,[2] is a species of tall, evergreen tree endemic to southeastern Australia. It has mostly smooth bark, juvenile leaves that are whitish and waxy on the lower surface, glossy green, lance-shaped adult leaves, glaucous, ribbed flower buds arranged singly or in groups of three or seven in leaf axils, white flowers and woody fruit. There are four subspecies, each with a different distibution, occurring in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
The leaves are 
steam distilled to extract eucalyptus oilE. globulus is the primary source of global eucalyptus oil production, with China being the largest commercial producer.[29][30] The oil has therapeuticperfumeryflavoringantimicrobial and biopesticide properties.[31][32][33] Oil yield ranges from 1.0-2.4% (fresh weight), with cineole being the major isolate. E. globulus oil has established itself internationally because it is virtually phellandrene free, a necessary characteristic for internal pharmaceutical use.[34] In 1870, Cloez identified and ascribed the name "eucalyptol" — now more often called cineole — to the dominant portion of E. globulus oil.[35]

Eucalyptus oil
- Eucalyptus oil 70 Ph.Eur. GMP
- Eucalyptus oil 80 Ph.Eur. GMP
- Eucalyptus oil 80/85 Ph.Eur. EU-GMP


Eucalyptus oil is the generic name for distilled oil from the leaf of Eucalyptus, a genus of the plant family Myrtaceae native to Australia and cultivated worldwide. Eucalyptus oil has a history of wide application, as a pharmaceutical, antiseptic, repellent, flavouring, fragrance and industrial uses. The leaves of selected Eucalyptus species are steam distilled to extract eucalyptus oil.



Eucalyptus oil for pharmaceutical use.

Eucalyptus /ˌjuːkəˈlɪptəs/ is a genus of over seven hundred species of flowering trees, shrubs or mallees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Along with other genera in the tribe Eucalypteae, they are commonly known as eucalypts. Plants in the genus Eucalyptus have bark that is either smooth, fibrous, hard or stringy, leaves with oil glands, and sepals and petals that are fused to form a "cap" or operculum over the stamens. The fruit is a woody capsule commonly referred to as a "gumnut".


Buds, capsules, flowers and foliage of E. tereticornis



Fennel in flower

Bitter fennel oil
- Bitter fennel oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Fennel(Foeniculum vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb used in cookery and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio (UK: /fɪˈnɒki/, US: /-ˈnk-/, Italian: [fiˈnɔkkjo]) is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.

Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in North America it may be used by the anise swallowtail.[citation needed]

A 100-gram reference amount of fennel fruits provides 1,440 kilojoules (345 kilocalories) of food energy, and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of proteindietary fiberB vitamins and several dietary minerals, especially calciumironmagnesium and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV (table). Fennel fruits are 52% carbohydrates (including 40% dietary fiber), 15% fat, 16% protein and 9% water (table).

 

Pine oil
- Pine oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of stumps, needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris. As of 1995, synthetic pine oil was the "biggest single turpentine derivative." Synthetic pine oils accounted for 90% of sales as of 2000.

In alternative medicine, it is said to be used in aromatherapy, as a scent in bath oils or more commonly as a cleaning product, and as a lubricant in small and expensive clockwork instruments. It may also be used varyingly as a disinfectantsanitizermicrobicide (or microbistat), virucide or insecticide. It is also used as an effective herbicide where its action is to modify the waxy cuticle of plants, resulting in desiccation.

 

   Turpentine

Caraway oil
- Caraway oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Caraway, also known as meridian fennel[1] and Persian cumin[1] (Carum carvi), is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,[2] native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.

The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) stems. The main flower stem is 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall, with small white or pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits, commonly (erroneously) called seeds, are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm (0.08 in) long, with five pale ridges.





Caraway

 

Lavender oil
- Lavender oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP
- Spike Lavender oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. Two forms are distinguished, lavender flower oil, a colorless oil, insoluble in water, having a density of 0.885 g/mL; and lavender spike oil, a distillate from the herb Lavandula latifolia, having density 0.905 g/mL. Like all essential oils, it is not a pure compound; it is a complex mixture of phytochemicals, including linalool and linalyl acetate.



Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint familyLamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to southeast India.[2] Many members of the genus are cultivated extensively in temperate climates as ornamental plants for garden and landscape use, for use as culinary herbs, and also commercially for the extraction of essential oils.[3] The most widely cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is often referred to as lavender, and there is a color named for the shade of the flowers of this species. Despite its use over centuries in traditional medicine and cosmetics, there is no high-quality clinical evidence that lavender has any effects on diseases or improves health.[4][5]

The exact composition of lavender essential oil varies from species to species but consists primarily of monoterpeneoids and sesquiterpeneoids. Of these linalool and linalyl acetate dominate, with moderate levels of lavandulyl acetateterpinen-4-ol and lavandulol1,8-cineole and camphor are also present in low to moderate qualities. In all lavender oil typically contains many more than 100 compounds, although a great many of these are present at very low concentrations.[13]

The composition of lavender essential oil as obtained by chromatography:

Family Composition Lavande officinale
Lavandula angustifolia
Lavande aspic
Lavandula latifolia
Terpenes /
Monoterpenols
Linalool skeletal.svg
Linalool
28.92 % 49.47 %
α-Terpineol 0.90% 1.08%
γ-Terpineol 0.09%
Borneol 1.43%
Isoborneol 0.82%
Terpinen-4-ol 4.32%
Nerol 0.20%
Lavandulol 0.78%
Terpenes /
Terpene esters
Linalyl acetate.svg
Linalyl acetate
32.98 %
Geranyl acetate 0.60%
Neryl acetate 0.32%
Octene-3-yl acetate 0.65%
Lavandulyl acetate 4.52%
Terpenes /
Monoterpenes
Myrcene 0.46% 0.41%
α-Pinene 0.54%
β-Pinene 0.33%
Camphene 0.30%
(E)-β-Ocimene 3.09%
(Z)-β-Ocimene 4.44%
β-Phellandrene 0.12%
Terpenes /
Terpenoid oxides
Eucalyptol.png
Eucalyptol
(1,8-cineol)
25.91 %
Terpenes /
Sesquiterpenes
β-Caryophyllene 4.62% 2.10%
β-Farnesene 2.73%
Germacrene 0.27%
α-Humulene 0.28%
Ketones Camphor structure.png
Camphor
0.85% 13.00 %
3-Octanone 0.72%
Cryptone.svg
Cryptone
0.35%

 



5-Methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-ol.

L-Menthol
- L-Menthol Ph.Eur./USP GMP
- Mint oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP
 

Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from the oils of corn mint, peppermint, or other mints. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above.

The main form of menthol occurring in nature is (−)-menthol, which is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist.


Mentha



Mentha(also known as mint, from Greek μίνθα míntha, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family). The exact distinction between species is unclear; it is estimated that 13 to 24 species exist.Hybridization occurs naturally where some species range overlap. Many hybrids and cultivars are known

Mint was originally used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains. There are several uses in traditional medicine[16] and preliminary research for possible use in treating irritable bowel syndrome.

Menthol from mint essential oil (40–90%) is an ingredient of many cosmetics and some perfumes. Menthol and mint essential oil are also used in aromatherapy which may have clinical use to alleviate post-surgery nausea.

 

Clove oil
- Clove oil F Ph.Eur EU-GMP
 

Oil of clove, also known as clove oil, is an essential oil extracted from the clove plant, Syzygium aromaticum. It has the CAS number 8000-34-8. Clove is often found in the aromatherapy section of health food stores, and is used in the flavoring of some medicinesMadagascar and Indonesia are the main producers of clove oil.[1]

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family MyrtaceaeSyzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands (or Moluccas) in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are available throughout the year due to different harvest seasons in different countries.[2]


Clove

Eugenol /ˈjɪnɒl/ is an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol, a member of the allylbenzene class of chemical compounds.[2] It is a colorless to pale yellow, aromatic oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oilnutmegcinnamonbasil and bay leaf.[3][4][5][6] It is present in concentrations of 80–90% in clove bud oil and at 82–88% in clove leaf oil.[7] Eugenol has a pleasant, spicy, clove-like scent.[8] The name is derived from Eugenia caryophyllata, the former Linnean nomenclature term for cloves. The current Linnean nomenclature term for cloves is Syzygium aromaticum.[9]



Eugenol

 


Peppermint (Mentha × piperita)

Peppermint oil
- Peppermint oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Peppermint extract  is an herbal extract of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) made from the essential oils of peppermint leaves. Peppermint is a hybrid of water mint and spearmint and was indigenous to Europe and the Middle East before it became common in other regions, such as North America and Asia.

Peppermint is commonly used in cooking, as a dietary supplement, as an herbal or alternative medicine, as a pest repellent, and a flavor or fragrance agent for cleaning products, cosmetics, mouthwash, chewing gum, and candies.Its active ingredients, such as menthol, menthone, and menthyl acetate, give it its minty properties that result in a fresh and cooling sensation when used. Moreover, peppermint is also a good source of vitamin A, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium..



Menthone


Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Wild.) is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint. Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now widely spread and cultivated in many regions of the world. It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.

Although the genus Mentha comprises more than 25 species, the most common one used is peppermint. While Western peppermint is derived from Mentha piperita, Chinese peppermint, or“Bohe” is derived from the fresh leaves of Mentha haplocalyx. Mentha piperita and Mentha haplocalyx are both recognized as plant sources of menthol and menthone and are among the oldest herbs used for both culinary and medicinal products.

Peppermint has a high menthol content. The oil also contains menthone and carboxyl esters, particularly 
menthyl acetate. Dried peppermint typically has 0.3–0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7–48%), menthone (20–46%), menthyl acetate (3–10%), menthofuran (1–17%) and 1,8-cineol (3–6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene.
Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin, hesperidin, and kaempferol 7-O-rutinoside.

 

Rosemary oil
- Rosemary oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Salvia rosmarinus, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known by the scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis, now a synonym.
It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which includes many other herbs. The name "rosemary" derives from Latin ros marinus ("dew of the sea"). The plant is also sometimes called anthos, from the ancient Greek word ἄνθος, meaning "flower".
 Rosemary has a fibrous root system.



Flowering rosemary

Rosmarinic_acid /ˌjuːkəˈlɪptəs/ is a genus of over seven hundred species of flowering trees, shrubs or mallees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Along with other genera in the tribe Eucalypteae, they are commonly known as eucalypts. Plants in the genus Eucalyptus have bark that is either smooth, fibrous, hard or stringy, leaves with oil glands, and sepals and petals that are fused to form a "cap" or operculum over the stamens. The fruit is a woody capsule commonly referred to as a "gumnut".


Rosmarinic acid

 



Salvia lavandulifolia

Sage oil
- Sage oil Spanish rect. Ph.Eur EU-GMP
- Sage oil Dalm. rect. Ph.Helv EU-GMP

Salvia_lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) is a small woody herbaceous perennial native to Spain and southern France, growing in rocky soil in Maquis shrubland, often found growing with rosemary, Lavandula lanata, and Genista cinerea.

S. lavandulifolia grows 1 ft tall and wide, with a reclining habit and narrow, lanceolate, whitish-gray evergreen leaves that are less than 2 in long. The leaves grow opposite each other on the stem and appear to grow in bunches. When the leaves are rubbed, oils give off a fragrance similar to rosemary. These oils are used for scenting soaps. The 1-in-long, pale lavender flowers grow on short inflorescences, blooming for about one month in late spring and early summer. The flowering stems have very few flowers on widely spaced whorls. Some varieties have a dark calyx.


Flowers of Salvia officinalis


Salvia officinalis (Dalmatian sage, sage
, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.

Reactivity
Alpha-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is an alkene and it contains a reactive four-membered ring. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Satureja myrtifolia (also known as Zoufa in some regions).Both enantiomers are known in nature; (1S,5S)- or (−)-α-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the (1R,5R)- or (+)-α-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil.


α-Pinene is highly bioavailable with 60% human pulmonary uptake with rapid metabolism or redistribution. α-Pinene is an anti-inflammatory via PGE1, and seems to be an antimicrobial. It exhibits activity as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, aiding memory. Like borneol, verbenol and pinocarveol (−)-α-pinene is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors. It acts at the benzodiazepine binding site.
α-Pinene forms the biosynthetic base for CB2 ligands, such as 
HU-308.

 

Turpentine oil
- Turpentine oil stab. rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP 

Turpentine (which is also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, and (colloquially), turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin harvested from living trees, mainly pines. It is mainly used as a solvent, and as a source of material for organic syntheses.

Turpentine is composed of terpenes, primarily the monoterpenes alpha- and beta-pinene, with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene..
One of the earliest sources of turpentine was the terebinth or turpentine tree (Pistacia terebinthus), a Mediterranean tree related to the pistachio. Important pines for turpentine production include: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran pine (Pinus merkusii), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).


"Herty system" in use on turpentine trees in Northern Florida, circa 1936
Alpha-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is an alkene and it contains a reactive four-membered ring. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Satureja myrtifolia (also known as Zoufa in some regions).Both enantiomers are known in nature; (1S,5S)- or (−)-α-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the (1R,5R)- or (+)-α-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil.

α-Pinene is highly bioavailable with 60% human pulmonary uptake with rapid metabolism or redistribution. α-Pinene is an anti-inflammatory via PGE1, and seems to be an antimicrobial. It exhibits activity as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, aiding memory. Like borneol, verbenol and pinocarveol (−)-α-pinene is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors. It acts at the benzodiazepine binding site.
α-Pinene forms the biosynthetic base for CB2 ligands, such as 
HU-308.

 


alpha-Pinene

 


A bundle of thyme

Thyme oil
- Thyme oil rect. Ph.Eur. EU-GMP

Thyme (/tm/) is any member of the genus Thymus of aromatic perennial evergreen herbs in the mint family Lamiaceae. Thymes are relatives of the oregano genus Origanum. They have culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses, and the species most commonly cultivated and used for culinary purposes is Thymus vulgaris.
Oil of thyme, the essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), contains 20–54% thymol. Thyme essential oil also contains a range of additional compounds, such as p-cymene, myrcene, borneol, and linalool. Thymol, an antiseptic, is an active ingredient in various commercially produced mouthwashes such as Listerine. Before the advent of modern antibiotics, oil of thyme was used to medicate bandages.


Thymol


Thymol (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP) is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted from Thymus vulgaris (common thyme), Ajwain and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol also provides the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme, also produced from T. vulgaris.
Thymol has been used in alcohol solutions and in dusting powders for the treatment of tinea or ringworm infections, and was used in the United States to treat hookworm infections. People of the Middle East continue to use za'atar, a delicacy made with large amounts of thyme, to reduce and eliminate internal parasites.[citation needed] It is also used as a preservative in halothane, an anaesthetic, and as an antiseptic in mouthwash. When used to reduce plaque and gingivitis, thymol has been found to be more effective when used in combination with chlorhexidine than when used purely by itself. Thymol is also the active antiseptic ingredient in some toothpastes, such as Johnson & Johnson's Euthymol. Thymol has been used to successfully control varroa mites and prevent fermentation and the growth of mold in bee colonies, methods developed by beekeeper R. O. B. Manley. Thymol is also used as a rapidly degrading, non-persisting pesticide. Thymol can also be used as a medical disinfectant and general purpose disinfectant.

 

Dwarf Pine oil
- Dwarf Pine oil Ph. Eur. EU-GMP

A Pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus (/ˈpns/) of the family inaceaePinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. The Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms.

Some species have large seeds, called pine nuts, that are harvested and sold for cooking and baking. They are an essential ingredient of pesto alla genovese.

The soft, moist, white inner bark (cambium) beneath the woody outer bark is edible and very high in vitamins A and C.[citation needed] It can be eaten raw in slices as a snack or dried and ground up into a powder for use as an ersatz flour or thickener in stews, soups, and other foods, such as bark bread. Adirondack Indians got their name from the Mohawk Indian word atirú:taks, meaning "tree eaters".

A tea made by steeping young, green pine needles in boiling water (known as tallstrunt in Sweden) is high in vitamins A and C.[citation needed] In eastern Asia, pine and other conifers are accepted among consumers as a beverage product, and used in teas, as well as wine.

Pine needles from Pinus densiflora were found to contain 30.54 mg/g of proanthocyanidins when extracted with hot water. Comparative to ethanol extraction resulting in 30.11 mg/g, simply extracting in hot water is preferable.

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pine resin is used for burns, wounds and dermal complaints.



Illustration of needles, cones, and seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Pinus_pumila (common names Siberian dwarf pine, dwarf Siberian pine dwarf stone pine,Japanese stone pine or creeping pine) is a native of northeastern Asia, including the islands of Japan. It shares the common name creeping pine with several other plants.
It is a coniferous evergreen shrub ranging from 1–3 m (3–10 ft) in height, exceptionally up to 5 m (16 ft), but may have individual branches that extend farther along the ground in length. 
It grows very slowly and is a perennial plant. It can live up to 300 and even 1000 years. For example, in harsh conditions of Siberia region there are trees of Siberian dwarf pine, which are 250 years-old and older.

Pinus pumila in natural habitat, eastern Siberia


Dried bark strips, bark powder and flowers of the small tree Cinnamomum verum.

Cinnamon bark oil
- Cinnamon bark oil F Ph.Eur EU-GMP

Cinnamon (/ˈsɪnəmən/ SIN-ə-mən) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cerealssnackfoodstea and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol.
Reviews of clinical trials reported lowering of fasting plasma glucose and inconsistent effects on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c, an indicator of chronically elevated plasma glucose)
A meta-analysis of cinnamon supplementation trials with lipid measurements reported lower total cholesterol and triglycerides, but no significant changes in LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol.[
Another reported no change to body weight or insulin resistance.
Cinnamon has a long history of use in traditional medicine as a digestive system aide.


Cinnamaldehyde

Cinnamaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH=CHCHO. Occurring naturally as predominantly the trans (E) isomer, it gives cinnamon its flavor and odor.[1] It is a phenylpropanoid that is naturally synthesized by the shikimate pathway.[This pale yellow, viscous liquid occurs in the bark of cinnamon trees and other species of the genus Cinnamomum. The essential oil of cinnamon bark is  about 90% cinnamaldehyde.

The most obvious application for cinnamaldehyde is as flavoring in chewing gum, ice cream, candy, eliquid and beverages; use levels range from 9 to 4,900 parts per million (ppm) (that is, less than 0.5%). It is also used in some perfumes of natural, sweet, or fruity scents. Almond, apricot, butterscotch, and other aromas may partially employ the compound for their pleasant smells. Cinnamaldehyde can be used as a food adulterant; powdered beechnut husk aromatized with cinnamaldehyde can be marketed as powdered cinnamon.Some breakfast cereals contain as much as 187 ppm cinnamaldehyde.

Cinnamaldehyde has been tested as a safe and effective insecticide against mosquito larvae. A concentration of 29 ppm of cinnamaldehyde kills half of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae in 24 hours. Trans-cinnamaldehyde works as a potent fumigant and practical repellant for adult mosquitos.


 

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