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Cytokines Related Biomolecules
Cytokines, Growth Factors, Chemokines, CD Antigens, Neurotrophins Hormones, Enzymes, Viral Antigens, Recombinant Proteins, Natural Proteins Antibodies, ......
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokine


3D medical animation still showing secretion of Cytokines.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides, and cannot cross the lipid bilayer of cells to enter the cytoplasm. Cytokines have been shown to be involved in autocrine signalingparacrine signaling and endocrine signaling as immunomodulating agents. Their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research. Cytokines include chemokinesinterferonsinterleukinslymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors, but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophagesB lymphocytesT lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cellsfibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell.[1][2]
In terms of complexity and time requirements, de-novo assemblies are orders of magnitude slower and more memory intensive than mapping assemblies. This is mostly due to the fact that the assembly algorithm needs to compare every read with every other read (an operation that has a naive time complexity of O(n2).
 
They act through receptors, and are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance between humoraland cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways.

They are different from hormones, which are also important cell signaling molecules, in that hormones circulate in higher concentrations and tend to be made by specific kinds of cells.
They are important in health and disease, specifically in host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, trauma, sepsis, cancer, and reproduction.
The word comes from Greek: cyto, from Greek "κύτος" kytos "cavity, cell" + kines, from Greek "κίνησις" kinēsis "movement".

Roles of endogenous cytokines in health and disease

Cytokines are often involved in several developmental processes during embryogenesis.[20][nb 1][21][nb 2]

Cytokines are crucial for fighting off infections and in other immune responses.[22] However, they can become dysregulated and pathological in inflammation, trauma, and sepsis.[22]

Adverse effects of cytokines have been linked to many disease states and conditions ranging from schizophrenia, major depression[23] and Alzheimer's disease[24] to cancer.[25] Normal tissue integrity is preserved by feedback interactions between diverse cell types mediated by adhesion molecules and secreted cytokines; disruption of normal feedback mechanisms in cancer threatens tissue integrity.[26] Over-secretion of cytokines can trigger a dangerous syndrome known as a cytokine storm; this may have been the cause of severe adverse events during a clinical trial of TGN1412. Cytokine storms are suspected to be the main cause of death in the 1918 "Spanish Flu" pandemic. Deaths were weighted more heavily towards people with healthy immune systems, due to its ability to produce stronger immune responses, likely increasing cytokine levels. Another important example of cytokine storm is seen in acute pancreatitis. Cytokines are integral and implicated in all angles of the cascade resulting in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi organ failure associated with this intra-abdominal catastrophe.[27]


Cytokine release syndrome

Bone morphogenetic protein

Medical use as drugs

Some cytokines have been developed into protein therapeutics using recombinant DNA technology.[28] Recombinant cytokines being used as drugs as of 2014 include:[29]

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ProSpec, https://www.prospecbio.com/ is an evolving biotech company providing highly purified proteins worldwide which serve the research community with Cytokine-related products for cancer, apoptosis, development, endocrinology, immunology, neuroscience, proteases, and stem cell research.
Among our proteins are InterferonsInterleukinsBone Morphogenic ProteinsTumor Necrosis factorsLeptinsStem Cell factorsProlactinsChemokines, Antibodies, PeptidesEnzymes, Viral Antigens, various growth factors such as: Platelet DerivedEpidermalInsulin LikeNerveConnective TissueVascular EndothelialFibroblast and more.....
Our research team and scientists have been able to assemble more than 6000 recombinant proteins, peptides and antibodies for your research needs. The proteins are rigorously tested to meet the research and development demand for excellent quality, uncompromising biological activity at competitive prices.

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The term "cytokine" is derived from a combination of two Greek words - "cyto" meaning cell and "kinos" meaning movement. Cytokines are cell signalling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma.


What are Cytokines?

Cytokines/immunocytokines, were initially used to separate the immunomodulatory proteins, also called immunotransmitters, from other growth factors that modulate proliferation and bioactivities of non-immune cells. Some cytokines are produced by a rather limited number of different cell types while others are produced by almost the entire spectrum of known cell types. Recombinant cytokines are in clinical use, and continues attempts are made to develop hybrid molecules from cytokines. 1 must be aware of the fact that current knowledge is still limited. Cytokines are powerful two-edged weapons that can trigger a cascade of reactions, and may show activities that often go beyond the single highly specific property that it is hoped they possess. New factors are being discovered constantly and they extend our knowledge about the Cytokine network. The understanding of the biological mechanisms governing cytokine actions are an important contribution to medical knowledge. The biochemistry and molecular biology of cytokine actions explain some well-known and sometimes also some of the more obscure clinical aspects of diseases. Knowledge that cytokines create regulatory hierarchies and provide independent and/or interrelated regulatory mechanisms that can confer distinct and interactive developmental functions lays a solid, albeit rather complicated foundation, for current and future clinical experiences.
The concept of "1 producer cell - 1 cytokine - 1 target cell" has been falsified for practically every cytokine investigated more closely. To classify these factors based on their producer or target cells is therefore also problematic. Classifications based upon identical or shared biological activities of cytokines especially with broad definitions is also problematic for example: BCDF (B-cell differentiation factors), BCGF (B-cell growth factors), Motogenic cytokines, Chemotactic cytokines (Chemokines), CSF (colony stimulating factors), angiogenesis factors, or TRF (T-cell replacing factors). Designations such as HBGF group (heparin binding growth factors) take into account biochemical shared properties by a variety of cytokines which also problematic. The term cytokine is used today as a generic name for a diverse group which includes proteins and peptides that act in nano-picomolar concentrations as humoral regulators and modulate the functional activities of individual cells & tissues. Cytokines also mediate interactions between cells & regulate processes taking place in the extracellular environment. Many growth factors and cytokines act as cellular survival factors by preventing programmed cell death......

4-1BB

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD137

Flt3 Ligand

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD135

Adiponectin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

Follistatin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follistatin

AITRL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TNFRSF18

Hedgehog Protein

Hedgehog_signaling_pathway

AIF1

Allograft_inflammatory_factor_1

Interferon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferon

Angiopoietin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiopoietin

Interleukin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin

Apolipoprotein

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apolipoprotein

lif - Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

Leukemia_inhibitory_factor

B-Cell Activating Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-cell_activating_factor

Otoraplin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OTOR

Beta Defensin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_defensin

Resistin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistin

Betacellulin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betacellulin

Serum Amyloid A

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serum_amyloid_A

Bone Morphogenetic Protein

Bone_morphogenetic_protein

TPO

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrombopoietin

BST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BST1

Trefoil Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trefoil_factor_1

B type Natriuretic Peptide

Brain_natriuretic_peptide

TSLP

Thymic_stromal_lymphopoietin

Cardiotrophin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiotrophin_1

Tumor Necrosis Factor

Tumor_necrosis_factor_superfamily

CTLA4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CTLA-4

Uteroglobin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uteroglobin

EBI3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EBI3

Visfatin

Nicotinamide_phosphoribosyltransferase

Endoglin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endoglin

Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wnt_signaling_pathway

Epiregulin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epiregulin

Other Cytokines

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytokine

FAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fas_receptor

 

 




Engineering growth factors for regenerative medicine applications
About Growth Factors

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth,[1] proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes.

Growth factors typically act as signaling molecules between cells. Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target cells.

They often promote cell differentiation and maturation, which varies between growth factors. For example, epidermal growth factor(EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation, [2] while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis).

Versus cytokines
Growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term 
cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism.

While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on cell growth or proliferation. Some cytokines, such as Fas ligand, are used as "death" signals; they cause target cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis.

The growth factor was first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini, which won her a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine......

Activin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activin_and_inhibin

Myostatin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myostatin

CSF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony-stimulating_factor

Noggin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noggin_(protein)

CTGF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CTGF

NOV

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NOV_(gene)

EGF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidermal_growth_factor

Omentin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelectin

Epigen

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigen

Oncostatin-M

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncostatin_M

Erythropoietin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythropoietin

Osteopontin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteopontin

Fibroblast Growth Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibroblast_growth_factor

Osteoprotegerin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteoprotegerin

Galectin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galectin

PDGF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet-derived_growth_factor

Growth Hormone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_hormone

Periostin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periostin

HDGF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatoma-derived_growth_factor

Placental Growth Factor

Placental_growth_factor

Hepatocyte Growth Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatocyte_growth_factor

Placental Lactogen

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placental_lactogen

IGFBP

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin-like_growth_factor-binding_protein

Prolactin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin

Insulin-Like Growth Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin-like_growth_factor_1

RANK Ligand

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RANKL

Insulin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin

Retinol Binding Protein

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinol-binding_protein

Keratinocyte Growth Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keratinocyte

Stem Cell Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell_factor

Leptin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptin

Transforming Growth Factor

Transforming_growth_factor

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

Macrophage_migration_inhibitory_factor

VEGF

Vascular_endothelial_growth_factor

Melanoma Inhibitory Activity

Melanoma_inhibitory_activity

Other Growth Factors

 




Interactions Between Hemopoietically Derived TNF and Central Nervous System-Resident Glial Chemokines Underlie Initiation of Autoimmune Inflammation in the Brain


About Chemokines
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signalingproteins secreted by cells. Their name is derived from their ability to induce directed chemotaxis in nearby responsive cells; they are chemotactic cytokines.

Cytokine proteins are classified as chemokines according to behavior and structural characteristics. In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape.

These proteins have historically been known under several other names including the SIS family of cytokines, SIG family of cytokines, SCY family of cytokines, Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. Chemokines are found in all vertebrates, some viruses and some bacteria, but none have been described for other invertebrates.
Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and XC. All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells.[1]

.....


BCA-1/ BLC (CXCL13)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL13

I-TAC (CXCL11)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL11

BRAK (CXCL14)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL14

LD78-beta (CCL3L1)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL3L1

C-10 (CCL6)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL6

Lymphotactin (XCL1)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XCL1

CTACK (CCL27)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL27

MCP (CCL2, 7,8,12,13)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL2

CXCL16

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL16

MDC (CCL22)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL22

CXCL17

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL17

MEC (CCL28)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL28

ENA-78 (CXCL5)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL5

MIG (CXCL9)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL9

Eotaxin (CCL11,24,26)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL11

MIP (CCL3,4,9,15)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL3

Exodus-2 (CCL21)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL21

NAP-2 (CXCL7)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL7

Fractalkine (CX3CL1)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CX3CL1

Platelet Factor-4 (CXCL4)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet_factor_4

GRO (CXCL1,2,3)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL1

Rantes (CCL5)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL5

HCC-1 (CCL14)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL14

SDF (CXCL12)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CXCL2

I-309 (CCL1)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL1

TARC (CCL17)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL17

Interleukin -8 (CXCL8)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin_8

Thymus Expressed Chemokine (CCL25)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCL25

IP-10 (CXCL10)

 

Other Chemokines

 




Cluster of Differentiation
(Immunophenotyping)


About CD antigens
The cluster of differentiation (also known as cluster of designation or classification determinant and often abbreviated as CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells.[1] In terms of physiology, CD molecules can act in numerous ways, often acting as receptors or ligands important to the cell. A signal cascade is usually initiated, altering the behavior of the cell (see cell signaling). Some CD proteins do not play a role in cell signaling, but have other functions, such as cell adhesion. CD for humans is numbered up to 371 (as of 21 April 2016).[2][3].....

Immunophenotyping

The CD system is commonly used as cell markers in immunophenotyping, allowing cells to be defined based on what molecules are present on their surface. These markers are often used to associate cells with certain immune functions. While using one CD molecule to define populations is uncommon (though a few examples exist), combining markers has allowed for cell types with very specific definitions within the immune system.
CD molecules are utilized in cell sorting using various methods, including flow cytometry
.

Two commonly used CD molecules are CD4 and CD8, which are, in general, used as markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells, respectively. These molecules are defined in combination with CD3+, as some other leukocytes also express these CD molecules (some macrophages express low levels of CD4; dendritic cells express high levels of CD8). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) binds CD4 and a chemokine receptor on the surface of a T helper cell to gain entry. The number of CD4 and CD8 T cells in blood is often used to monitor the progression of HIV infection.

Physiological functions
While CD molecules are very useful in defining leukocytes, they are not merely markers on the cell surface. While only a fraction of known CD molecules have been thoroughly characterised, most of them have an important function. In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface receptors for growth factors.


CD1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD1

CD47

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD47

CD14

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD14

CD5

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD5_(protein)

CD2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD2

CD8B

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD8

CD200

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD200

CD5L

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD5L

CD204

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MSR1

CD68

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD68

CD207

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langerin

CD55

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decay-accelerating_factor

CD226

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD226

CD7

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD7

CD244

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD244

CD73

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NT5E

CD27

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD27

CD58

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD58

CD23

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD23

CD74

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD74

CD274

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PD-L1

CD80

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD80

CD247

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD247

CD79

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD79

CD3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD3_(immunology)

CD84

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD84

CD33

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD33

CD93

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD93

CD300

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD300A

CD99

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD99

CD34

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD34

Fc Fragment of IgG Receptor

 

CD36

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD36

CD164

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD164

CD4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD4

sCD40L

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD40_(protein)

CD40

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD40_(protein)

Other CD Antigens

 

CD46

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD46

CD47

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD47




Neurotrophin

About Neurotrophins

Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that induce the survival,[1] development, and function[2] of neurons.

They belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that are capable of signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow.[3] Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating programmed cell death – thus allowing the neurons to survive. Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells, to form neurons. Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain (for example, the hippocampus) retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells, a process known as neurogenesis.[4] Neurotrophins are chemicals that help to stimulate and control neurogenesis.

Function : During the development of the vertebrate nervous system, many neurons become redundant (because they have died, failed to connect to target cells, etc.) and are eliminated. At the same time, developing neurons send out axon outgrowths that contact their target cells.[9] Such cells control their degree of innervation (the number of axon connections) by the secretion of various specific neurotrophic factors that are essential for neuron survival. One of these is nerve growth factor (NGF or beta-NGF), a vertebrate protein that stimulates division and differentiation of sympathetic and embryonic sensory neurons.[10][11] NGF is mostly found outside the central nervous system (CNS), but slight traces have been detected in adult CNS tissues, although a physiological role for this is unknown.[9] It has also been found in several snake venoms.[12][13],.....


BDNF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain-derived_neurotrophic_factor

BDNF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain-derived_neurotrophic_factor

Beta-NGF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nerve_growth_factor

Neuroglobin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroglobin

CDNF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_dopamine_neurotrophic_factor

Neuritin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRN1

CNTF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliary_neurotrophic_factor

Neuropilin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuropilin

GDNF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glial_cell_line-derived_neurotrophic_factor

Neurotrophic factors

Neurotrophic_factors

Glia Maturation Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia_maturation_factor

Persephin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persephin

MANF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARMET

Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PEDF

Midkine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midkine

Pleiotrophin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiotrophin

Neuregulin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuregulin

Other Neurotrophins

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotrophin





Different types of hormones are secreted in the body, with different biological roles and functions

About Hormones

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶν”, "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of three classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling).

Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiologicalregulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissuefunction, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood.[1][2] Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell function.

When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway that typically activates gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins; non-genomic effects are more rapid, and can be synergistic with genomic effects.[3] Amino acid–based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via second messengers; steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei.

Hormone secretion may occur in many tissues. Endocrine glands are the cardinal example, but specialized cells in various other organs also secrete hormones. Hormone secretion occurs in response to specific biochemical signals from a wide range of regulatory systems. For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is. Regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and thyroid hormones is often dependent on complex sets of direct influence and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -gonadal (HPG), and -thyroid (HPT) axes.

.....


Endothelin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endothelin

Endothelin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonadotropin-releasing_hormone

Exendin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucagon-like_peptide-1

Peptide Hormones

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptide_hormone

FSH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follicle-stimulating_hormone

Procalcitonin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procalcitonin

GHRP

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_hormone%E2%80%93releasing_hormone

PTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parathyroid_hormone

GLP

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucagon-like_peptide-1

Stanniocalcin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanniocalcin

Glucagon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucagon

Thymosin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymosin

HCG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_chorionic_gonadotropin

Thyrostimulin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPHA2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPHB5

Inhibin A

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activin_and_inhibin

TSH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid-stimulating_hormone

LHRH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonadotropin-releasing_hormone

Other Hormones

 





The enzyme glucosidase converts the sugar maltose to two glucose sugars. Active site residues in red, maltose substrate in black, and NAD cofactor in yellow. (PDB: 1OBB​)

About Enzymes

Enzymes /ˈɛnzmz/ are macromolecular biologicalcatalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3]

Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificitycomes from their unique three-dimensional structures.

.....


14-3-3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/14-3-3_protein

Kallikrein

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kallikrein

Activating Transcription Factor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activating_transcription_factor

Ligase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligase

Adenylate Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenylate_kinase

Lipase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipase

AHCY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosylhomocysteinase

Lipocalin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipocalin

Aldolase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fructose-bisphosphate_aldolase

Lyase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyase

Asparaginase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asparaginase

LYVE1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LYVE1

Aurora Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_kinase

MMP

Matrix_metalloproteinase_inhibitor

Beta Lactamase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-lactamase

TIMP

Tissue_inhibitor_of_metalloproteinase

Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ca2%2B/calmodulin-dependent_protein_kinase_II

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitogen-activated_protein_kinase

Calcium and Integrin Binding

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIB1

Mutase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutase

Carbonic Anhydrase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonic_anhydrase

Natural Enzymes

 

Casein Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casein_kinase_1

Nuclease

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclease

Cathepsin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin

Nucleotidase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotidase

Chitinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitinase

Nudix Type Motif

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nudix_hydrolase

Creatin Kinases

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creatine_kinase

Oxidase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidase

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin-dependent_kinase

Oxygenase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygenase

Cyclin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin

Paraoxonase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraoxonase

Cyclophilin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclophilin

Peptidase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protease

Deaminase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deamination

Peroxiredoxin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroxiredoxin

Decarboxylase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxy-lyases

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

Protein_tyrosine_phosphatase

Dehydrogenase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dehydrogenase

Phosphatase

Phosphatase#In_gluconeogenesis

Discoidin Domain Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discoidin_domain-containing_receptor_2

PPARG

Peroxisome_proliferator-activated_receptor_gamma

DNA Polymerase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_polymerase
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pfu_DNA_polymerase
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taq_polymerase
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TaqMan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_polymerase_beta
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_excision_repair

PI3-kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphoinositide_3-kinase

EGF Receptor

Epidermal_growth_factor_receptor

Phosphorylase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorylase

Endonuclease

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endonuclease

Polymerase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase

Enolase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enolase

Protease

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protease

Enterokinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enteropeptidase

Proteasome

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteasome

Epimerase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epimerase_and_racemase

Protein Kinase-A

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_A

Esterase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esterase

Protein Kinase-C

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_C

FGF Receptors

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibroblast_growth_factor_receptor

Protein Kinase Akt1/PKB alpha

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_B

FK506 Binding Protein

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FKBP

Protein Kinases

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase

Fructosamine 3 Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fructosamine-3-kinase

Reductase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductase

Galactosidase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galactosidases

Secreted Phospholipase A2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phospholipase_A2

Glucosidase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucosidases

Serine Threonine Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serine/threonine-specific_protein_kinase

Gluteradoxin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutaredoxin

Sulfatase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfatase

Glycogen synthase kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycogen_synthase_kinase

Synthase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthase

Glycosylase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycosylase

Synthetase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligase

Glyoxalase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyoxalase_system

TIE1,TIE2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIE1

Granzyme

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granzyme

TPA

Tissue_plasminogen_activator

Guanylate Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanylate_kinase

TGFBR

Transforming_growth_factor_beta

Histone Deacetylase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histone_deacetylase

Transaminase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaminase

Heparanase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heparanase

Transferase

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transferase

Hexokinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexokinase

TGM2

Tissue_transglutaminase

Hydratase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydration_reaction

Tyrosine Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrosine_kinase

Hydrolase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrolase

Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubiquitin-conjugating_enzyme

Hydroxylase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxylation

Uromodulin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamm%E2%80%93Horsfall_protein

Isomerase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isomerase

VEGF Receptors

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VEGF_receptor

Jun N-terminal Kinase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Jun_N-terminal_kinases

Other Enzymes

 

Jun Proto-Oncogene

 

Ligase

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligase




Virus

Viral Antigens
A viral Antigen is an antigen with multiple antigenicities that is protein in nature, strain-specific, and closely associated with the virus particle. A viral antigen is a protein encoded by the viral genome.A viral protein is an antigen specified by the viral genome that can be detected by a specific immunological response. Viruses are infectious pathogens that cause serious diseases & major threats for global public health, such as influenza, hepatitis, & AIDS. Virus is a sub-micrometer particle that has DNA or RNA packed in a shell called capsid. Viral antigens protrude from the capsid and often fulfill important function in docking to the host cell, fusion, and injection of viral DNA/RNA. Antibody-based immune responses form a first layer of protection of the host from viral infection; however, in many cases a vigorous cellular immune response mediated by T-cells and NK-cells is required for effective viral clearance. When cellular immunity is unable to clear the virus, the infection can become chronic, and serum antibodies to the viral pathogen are used as first indicator for the diagnosis of the disease. ELISAs provide a valuable tool in the detection and diagnosis of virus infection. The ability to produce recombinant viral proteins will ensure that future ELISAs are safe, specific and rapid. Even when a virus cannot be cultured, provided gene sequence is available, it is possible to rapidly respond to emerging viruses and new viral strains of existing pathogens. Recombinant viral antigens contain part of viral sequence meaning that the recombinant antigen contains a region which can be recognized by different antibodies produced by different individuals. This reduces the risk of false negatives which can occur with synthetic peptides, which contain only a small portion of the entire protein. If an individual infected with a viral antigen makes antibodies to a part of the protein not included in the synthetic peptides, a false negative results. Recombinant viral protein usually contains a fusion protein/partner which produces superior attachment to assay surfaces such as wells. For this reason, smaller amounts of recombinant protein will produce the same results as larger amounts of unfused protein. The choice of fusion partner prevents false positives, allowing superior adhesion without incorrect results.




Subunit vaccine

A subunit vaccine presents an antigen to the immune system without introducing viral particles, whole or otherwise. One method of production involves isolation of a specific protein from a virus and administering this by itself. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and will then become associated with antibodies different from the desired antibodies. A second method of making a subunit vaccine involves putting an antigen's gene from the targeted virus or bacterium into another virus (virus vector), yeast (yeast vector), as in the case of the hepatitis B vaccine[3] or attenuated bacterium (bacterial vector) to make a recombinant virus or bacteria to serve as the important component of a recombinant vaccine (called a recombinant subunit vaccine). The recombinant vector that is genomically modified will express the antigen. The antigen (one or more subunits of protein) is extracted from the vector.[4] Just like the highly successful subunit vaccines, the recombinant-vector-produced antigen will be of little to no risk to the patient. This is the type of vaccine currently in use for hepatitis B,[5] and it is experimentally popular, being used to try to develop new vaccines for difficult-to-vaccinate-against viruses such as ebolavirus and HIV.[6]

Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViCPS) is another subunit vaccine (contains the signature polysaccharide linked to the Vi capsular antigen), in this case, against typhoid caused by the Typhi serotype of Salmonella.[7] It is also called a conjugate vaccine, in which a polysaccharide antigen has been covalently attached to a carrier protein for T-cell-dependent antigen processing(utilizing MHC II).[8]


Borrelia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrelia

HIV

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV

Chagas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagas_disease

HTLV

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_T-lymphotropic_virus

Chikungunya

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikungunya

Influenza

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza

Chlamydia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydia_infection

Lassa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lassa_virus

Cytomegalo

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytomegalovirus

Malaria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria

Dengue

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever

Mumps

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumps

Ebola

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebolavirus

Mycoplasma

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycoplasma

EBV

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epstein%E2%80%93Barr_virus

Norovirus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norovirus

Encephalitis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encephalitis

Papillomavirus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papillomaviridae

Feline Leukemia Virus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feline_leukemia_virus

Parvovirus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvovirus

Hantavirus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthohantavirus

Rubella

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubella

HBsAg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HBsAg

SARS

Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome

Hepatitis A

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_A

Shiga Like Toxin

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiga_toxin

Hepatitis B

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_B

Toxoplasma

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxoplasma_gondii

Hepatitis C

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_C

Treponema

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treponema

Hepatitis D

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_D

S. Typhi

Salmonella_enterica_subsp._enterica

Hepatitis E

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_E

Varicella

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickenpox

Herpes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpes_simplex

West Nile

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_fever

Helicobacter Pylori

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicobacter_pylori

Zika

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zika_fever

HERV-K

Human_endogenous_retrovirus_K

 

 


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