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Functional Cosmetic Ingredients
Leonurus Japonicus / Ficus Formosana / Eustoma Grandiflorum / Centella Asiatica EGF Sh-oligopeptide-1 (Epidermal Growth Factor EGF) / OGG1- 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase CTFA INCI Name / Patent

Knowledge base :

The Cosmetic Industry, INCI name, The Personal Care Products Council(PCPC), Cosmetic Ingredient
Review(CIR), Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatory, Cytotoxicity


Cosmetics at department store 
Farmers Centre Place in Hamilton, New Zealand 

The Cosmetic Industry describes the industry that manufactures and distributes cosmetic products. These include colour cosmetics, like foundation and mascara, skincare such as moisturisers and cleansers, haircare such as shampoos, conditioners and hair colours, and toiletries such as bubble bath and soap. The manufacturing industry is dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The largest cosmetic companies are Johnson & Johnson, L'Oreal Paris,Gillette, Neutrogena, Nivea and Chanel, Inc.[1] The market volume of the cosmetics industry in Europe and the United States is about EUR €70b per year, according to a 2005 publication.[2] The worldwide cosmetics and perfume industry currently generates an estimated annual turnover of US$170 billion (according to Eurostaf – May 2007). Europe is the leading market, representing approximately €63 billion.


The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients, abbreviated INCI, is a systemic names for waxesoilspigmentschemicals, and other ingredients of soapscosmetics, and the like, based on scientific names and other Latin and English words.[1] INCI names often differ greatly from systematic chemical nomenclature or from more common trivial names.
In the U.S., under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, certain accurate information is a requirement to appear on labels of cosmetic products.[3] In Canada, the regulatory guideline is the Cosmetic Regulations.[4] Ingredient names must comply by law with EU requirements by using INCI names.[5]

The cosmetic regulation laws are enforceable for important consumer safety. For example, the ingredients are listed on the ingredient declaration for the purchaser to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction to an ingredient the user has had an allergy to before. INCI names are mandated on the ingredient statement of every consumer personal care product. The INCI system allows the consumer to identify the ingredient content. In the U.S., true soaps (as defined by the FDA) are specifically exempted from INCI labeling requirements as cosmetics per FDA regulation.[6]

 

The Personal Care Products Council (PCPC) was founded in 1894 as the Manufacturing Perfumers' Association. In 1922 it was renamed to the American Manufacturers of Toilet Articles (AMTA) in 1922;[1] in 1970 the association adopted the name Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association;[2] in November 2007, the name was changed to the Personal Care Products Council.[3]
 

In April 2009, Lezlee Westine was appointed President and CEO of the Personal Care Products Council, replacing interim President Mark Pollak.
[4]
The organization has five main departments:
[5]

·       
Science handles research and development.
·       
Government Affairs conducts federal and state lobbying.
·       
Global Strategies monitors and takes action on international cosmetic regulation.
·       
Legal and Regulatory takes appropriate action on court decisions and regulatory agencies.
·        Public Affairs and Communications communicates industry messages to the media and other stakeholders.
The Personal Care Products Council Foundation works with the American Cancer Society and the Professional Beauty Association to administer the Look Good Feel Better Program. The program aims to help cancer patients learn skin care and beauty techniques.
[6]




Approximately 6,000 scientific and technical professionals working today in the cosmetics industry are committed to product and consumer safety using the best science available.

Cosmetic Ingredient Review And EU Update

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), based in Washington, D.C., assesses and reviews the safety of ingredients in cosmetics and publishes the results in peer-reviewed scientific literature. The company was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (then called the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association), with support of the Food and Drug Administration and the Consumer Federation of America.
In 2002, the CIR decided that it was safe for the industry to continue adding possible endocrine and reproductive disruptors known as phthalates to cosmetics marketed to women of childbearing age.[1] In August 2008, Section 108 of the federal Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA), public law 110-314,[3] banned the use of three phthalates, DEHPDBP, and BBP, in children's toy and child care articles. Some phthalates were restricted in children's toys sold in California starting in 2009.[4]

As of 2013, the European Union bans nearly 1,400 chemicals from personal care products because they are carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to reproduction. In the United States, CIR has found only eleven chemicals to be "unsafe for use in cosmetics".[1].


Structure of the antioxidant glutathione 

Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidationOxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. To balance the oxidative stress, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase), produced internally, or the dietary antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E.

The term "antioxidant" is mostly used for two entirely different groups of substances: industrial chemicals that are added to products to prevent oxidation, and naturally occurring compounds that are present in foods and tissue. The former, industrial antioxidants, have diverse uses: acting as preservatives in food and cosmetics, and being oxidation-inhibitors in fuels.
[1]

Antioxidant dietary supplements have not been shown to improve health in humans, or to be effective at preventing disease.[2] Supplements of beta-carotenevitamin A, and vitamin E have no positive effect on mortality rate[3][4] or cancer risk.[5][6] Additionally, supplementation with selenium or vitamin E does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[7][8]

Anti-inflammatory (or antiinflammatory) is the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swellingAnti-inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system to block pain signaling to the brain.
In addition to medical drugs, some herbs and health supplements may have anti-inflammatory qualities: bromelain from pineapples (Ananas comosus).[26] Cannabichromene, a cannabinoid, also has anti-inflammatory effect.[27] Honokiol from Magnolia inhibits platelet aggregation, and works as an inverse agonist at the CB2 receptor. Black seed (Nigella sativa) has shown anti-inflammatory effect due to its high thymoquinone content.[28] St. John's wort's chief constituent, hyperforin, has been found to be a potent COX-1 and 5-LO inhibitor, with anti-inflammatory effect several fold that of aspirin.[29]

Coal tar has been used for centuries for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Oral administration for central effects is now rare as coal tar also contains a range of dangerous and carcinogenic compounds, and does not allow for the administration of standardized doses, although some doctors readily utilize coal tar preparations for topical administration (ex. Denorex, Psoriasin) in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema and atopic dermatitis. Many modern analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents (ex. paracetamol, and its previously used predecessor phenacetin) are derived from compounds which were originally discovered during studies to elucidate the chemicals responsible for the tars reputed health benefits.[30][31]



A moderate case of dermatitis of the hands.


Cytotoxicity assays are widely used by the pharmaceutical industry to screen for cytotoxicity in compound libraries. 

Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa).

Treating cells with the cytotoxic compound can result in a variety of cell fates. The cells may undergo necrosis, in which they lose membrane integrity and die rapidly as a result of cell lysis. The cells can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death (apoptosis).

Assessing cell membrane integrity is one of the most common ways to measure cell viability and cytotoxic effects. Compounds that have cytotoxic effects often compromise cell membrane integrity. Vital dyes, such as trypan blue or propidium iodide are normally excluded from the inside of healthy cells; however, if the cell membrane has been compromised, they freely cross the membrane and stain intracellular components.[1] Alternatively, membrane integrity can be assessed by monitoring the passage of substances that are normally sequestered inside cells to the outside.



A microtiter plate after an MTT assay. Increasing amounts of cells resulted in increased purple colouring.

The MTT assay is a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity.[1] NAD(P)H-dependent cellular oxidoreductase enzymes may, under defined conditions, reflect the number of viable cells present. These enzymes are capable of reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide to its insoluble formazan, which has a purple color. Other closely related tetrazolium dyes including XTT, MTS and the WSTs, are used in conjunction with the intermediate electron acceptor, 1-methoxy phenazine methosulfate (PMS). With WST-1, which is cell-impermeable, reduction occurs outside the cell via plasma membrane electron transport.[2] However, this traditionally assumed explanation is currently contended as proof has also been found of MTT reduction to formazan in lipidic cellular structures without apparent involvement of oxidoreductases.[3] Tetrazolium dye assays can also be used to measure cytotoxicity (loss of viable cells) or cytostatic activity (shift from proliferation to quiescence) of potential medicinal agents and toxic materials. MTT assays are usually done in the dark since the MTT reagent is sensitive to light..

Leading with Quality, Performance and Cost

Our partners, the TSC (Taiwan Sugar Corporation), ,
is a time-honored, state-owned enterprise in Taiwan. Its products and services have reached all corners of Taiwan to make the most trusted and well-known sugar brand. As a state-owned enterprise.
Founded in 1946 and being the leading brand of sugar production and sales in Taiwan by focusing primarily on the production and sales of sugar and sugar byproducts during its early days. TSC has n recent years, actively promoted diversification and transformation to establish several business divisions, including divisions as :
1. Sugar, 2. Biotechnology, 3. Agriculture, 4. Petroleum, 5. Livestock, 6. Leisure, and 7. Marketing Business Divisions, etc......
And has made full use of its R&D and resource advantages for promoting environmental circulation recycling and for improving social welfare, in addition to fulfilling its basic corporate responsibilities by collaborating with its notional policies and looking after peoples' livelihoods.

TSRI (Taiwan Sugar Research Institute)

TSRI is the research center of TSC in correspondence to the long-term development strategy planning. It is responsible for the research and development following government's policy and closely collaborates with different divisions to achieve the company's goals.
Most long-term research and development projects as well as highly challenging technology are also carried out by TSRI.
Our services include the assessment of industrial environment, product development, and process optimization to further fulfill the demands of each division.

Biotechnology Business Division

Equipped with instruments ranging from bench to production scale, Biotechnology Business Division are capable of carrying out test runs for fermentation, extraction, biotransformation, spray drying, freeze drying, tablet forming, capsule filling, and film-coated packaging.
Our team has experiences in sophisticated chemical and physical analysis, as well as formulation in functional food and cosmetics.
The research lab and production site are GMP, ISO, or TAF certified.
The core technologies include that are applied further in product manufacture to gain differentiated advantages within the market :
1. Fermentation,
2. Extraction,
3. Biotransformation,
4. Drying,
5. Formulations and deodorization, etc.

The core products of this business division are biotechnologically oriented, including health food, skin care products and specialized ODM/OEM products. These core platforms make us well-known in fermentation, extraction and purification of specialty functional extracts, biotransformation and removal of discontent smell in food etc.
 

Leonurus Extract
- Leonurus Japonicus (Water) Extract

INCI Name : Water (and) Leonurus Japonicus Extract
Trade Name : Leonurus TSC

Leonurus Japonicus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonurus_japonicus 
Quanosine (CAS: 118-00-3),

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanosine 
Rutin (CAS: 153-18-4),

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutin 
Syringic acid (CAS: 530-57-4) 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syringic_acid 
Stigmasterol (CAS: 83-48-7).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stigmasterol

Leonurus japonicus, commonly called oriental motherwort[3] or Chinese motherwort, is a herbaceous flowering plant native to Asia, including Korea and Japan, and China to Cambodia.
Leonurus japonicus, contains several compounds with biology activity,such as guanosine (CAS: 118-00-3), rutin (CAS: 153-18-4), syringic acid (CAS: 530-57-4) and stigmasterol (CAS: 83-48-7). Scientists use the purified compound as a standard in drug screening.[6]


Bush Flower Shrub

 
 Leonurus japonicus Houtt
Also known as Gastrodia elata, has pharmacological effects such as activating blood, removing stasis, regulating menstruation, and dissipating water. It is a good medicine for gynecology. It can be taken internally or externally. Oral administration has the effects of regulating menstruation and analgesics. External application can whiten skin tone, remove freckle, and prevent wrinkles. At the same time, the water extract of Leonurus also inhibits skin fungi.

Antioxidant



Antioxidant effect is better than 0.2 mg/mL Vit.C and 1mg/mL Vit.E.
Free Radical Scavenging



Free Radical Scavenging effect is better than 0.01 mg / mL Vit. E.


Cytotoxicity Test

  Survival Ratio
Conc. (mg/ml)   5 2.5 1 0.5
Leonurus   82.40% 118.20% 107.80% 109.50%
C(Conc. DMSO) 75.20% 82.20% 87.60% 95.50%
NC(5% DMSO ) 18.80%
PC(Full media)   100.00%
1.     CellBalb/3T3, CCRC+13
2.
     Full media: DMEM with 10% CS
3.
     Cell assay reagent: Cell Titer® Reagent
4.     490 nm Absorbance

Intracellular Antioxidant Capacity


Each group was treated with 1 mg of extract for half an hour and then treated with H2O2 (100 μg / mL) for 30 minutes. Test if the sample can reduce the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 in Endothelial cells (EAhy926)
Anti-Inflammatory Effect



The Endothelial cells (EAhy926) was treated by extract for one hour and then treated with TNF-α for 12 hours. The calibrated 1.5 × 10exp6 human monocyte cell line (THP-1) was added to Endothelial cells for 30 minutes, and fluorescence measured (excitation, 500 nm; emission, 530 nm).

Anti-inflammatory ability (Western blot method)



Anti-Wrinkle Efficacy


1 mg / mL extract is anti-inflammatory.For each group, Endothelial cells was treated with 1 mg of extract for one hour, and then treated with TNF-α for 4 hours. The expression of adhesion factor ICAM-1 was measured by Western blotting method.


Detection of Heavy Metals in concentrated Leonurus water extract


Item
Leonurus extract (ppb) Limit in cosmetics1ppm)  Limit in rice2 (ppm)
Mercury (Hg)  <200  1 0.05
Cadmium (Cd)  ND 20 0.4
Arsenic (As)  <200  10 0.2

1. Cadmium and Lead are in accordance with the Cosmetics Limit Standard of the  Department of Health of the Executive Yuan.     Mercury and Arsenic refer to Chinese cosmetic hygiene standards.

2. Based on the standard of rice heavy metal limit by the Department of Health of the Executive Yuan (revised on November 26, 2008).  Testing unit: National Cheng Kung University Agricultural Product Safety Inspection Center.
Analysis of Leonurus Water Extract by HPLC

Product Quality Control Specifications

Item  Specification
Appearance  Paste
Color  Reddish brown
Flavor  Unique flavor
Water-soluble  > 400 mg / mL (light tea yellow clear solution in water)
Water activity  Less than 0.7
Index composition (mg / g)  Stachyloline hydrochloride:> 25mg / g
Microorganisms Total number of microorganisms <1000cfu / g; Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli were not detected
Analysis of pesticide residues and heavy metals Meet the requirements of the Department of Health Cosmetics Allowable Concentration

 


With antioxidant and whitening effects. Anti-inflammatory and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effect.
With three patents of the R.O.C. patents I385000, I484969, and China patents, ZL201010199413.9

Genius Fruit Extract
- Ficus Formosana ( Butylene Glycol ) Root Extract

INCI Name : Butylene Glycol (and) Ficus Formosana Root Extract
Trade Name : Ficus Formosana Extract TSC

Ficus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus
Matrix Metallo Proteinase
MMP
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_metallopeptidase
Retinoic acid
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinoic_acid
Collagenase
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collagenase
Elastase
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastase

New application of Formosa Genius Fruit Extract for anti-wrinkle and anti-aging of skin.


Matrix Metallo Proteinase (MMP)
• 25 types; contains various collagenases
• Responsible for decomposing the extra cellular matrix of the skin.
Excessive decomposition causes wrinkles.
• UV, ozone, smoking, age increase <> MMP rises.
• MMP has a great impact on skin aging.


Normal Processes

Pathological Processes

Embryonic development
Blastocyst implantation
Organ morphogenesis
Nerve growth
Ovulation
Cervical dilation
Postpartum uterine involution Endometrial cycling
Hair follicle cycling

Bone remodeling

Wound healing

Angiogenesis

Inflammation

Apoptosis

Immune response

Arthritis
Cancer
Periodontal disease
Corneal ulceration
Cardiovascular disease
Multiple sclerosis
Nephritis
Neurological disease
Breakdown of blood brain barrier

Skin ulceration

Gastric ulcer
Liver fibrosis
Emphysema
Liver cirrhosis
Fibrotic lung disease
Vascular diseases
Sorsby's fundus dystrophy
Alzheimer's disease
Guillian-Barre disease



Inhibitory Effect for Matrix Metallo Proteinase (MMP)

Name  MMP-1  MMP-2  MMP9
Medium (control) - - -
RA (10 mg/mL)  64.87 54.82 65.16
Retinol (10  mg/mL)    0 0
TNF-a (10 mg/mL)  0 0 0
Ficus formosana M (4-15) (1mg/mL)  44.33 87.79 70.41
Ficus formosana W (4-16) (1mg/mL) 70.43 -17.67 12.96

MMP-1, -9: A or better than 10 μg / mL of A acid.
A acid is a drug approved by the US FDA to relieve fine lines caused by photoaging and to treat skin damage caused by ultraviolet rays in the sun.
<> With retinoic acid and more.

Effect of MMP-2: better than or close to 10 μg / mL A acid.
<> Has wound healing effect on the skin.

Elastases
Impact: The Elastin is broken down, causing shrinkage, thinning of the thick palate, reducing skin elasticity and sagging.
Elastases activity: increases with age.
Slow down the degradation of Elastin
     –
Inhibiting activity of Elastases.
     –
Increase skin fibroblasts synthesis function, enable robust Elastin, 
         rebuild elastic fiber structure. <> Steroid hormones

Elastase inhibitors are often added to cosmetics

Inhibition of Elastase

Name  (%) Inhibition
PC  88.97
NC 0
Ficus formosana M (1mg / mL)  72.1
Ficus formosana W (1mg / mL)  16.55


Summary

The Formosa Genius Fruit in the present invention belongs to the native medicine of
    Taiwan.

The Formosa Genius Fruit in the present invention has dual effects of inhibiting Matrix
    Metallo Proteinase (MMP-1, -2, -9) and inhibiting Elastase activity.

Different from the beauty and skin care products of ordinary animal, mineral or fermented
    origin, it belongs anti-wrinkle and anti-aging beauty care products of natural plant.

Skin Irritation Test :

Samples containing extract of Formosa Genius Fruit (1mg / mL) are placed in a small dish in a Finn chamber patch, and after full contact with the skin for 48 hours,

taking off the patch, rest for 1 hour after washing the skin, the skin at the inside of the upper arms of the 20 subjects did not have any discomfort such as redness, swelling or itching,

and throughout the process, twenty subjects also did not feel any discomfort, indicating that Formosa Genius Fruit Extract (1mg / mL) was not irritating to the skin.

Skin Suitability Test :

Formosa Genius Fruit Extract (1mg / mL) was applied to the flexor skin of the upper arm for 6 weeks.  During the test period, 20 subjects did not experience any uncomfortable skin or adverse skin reactions, means that Formosa Genius Fruit Extract is suitable for skin.

Formosa Genius Fruit Extract will reduce skin water loss, increase skin brightness, significantlymprove wrinkles deminishing, increase skin elasticity, reduce the number of enlarged pores.

Facial Skin - Moisturizing


Facial Skin - Anti-Aging
 

Hand Skin - Brightness
Facial Skin - Brightness
 

Formosa Genius Fruit Extract will increase the brightness of the skin on the flexor side of the hand and make the skin look fairer.

Measurement of Brightness of Formosa Genius Fruit on hand for 6 weeks

  Week 2 Week 4  Week 6
Skin brightness 12.4% ± 17.1%  13.4% ± 16.4%  12.8% ± 18.4%
Hand Skin - Moisturizing

 
The extract will increase the brightness of the skin on the hands, make the skin look fairer and have a clear moisturizing effect.

 

Eustoma Grandiflorum Extract
- Eustoma Grandiflorum ( Butylene Glycol ) Extract


IINCI Name : Butylene Glycol (and) Eustoma Grandiflorum Extract
Trade Name : Eustoma Extract


Eustoma Grandiflorum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustoma_russellianum
Matrix Metallo Proteinase
MMP
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_metallopeptidase

Eustoma Grandiflorum
extract, selected from the beautiful flower Eustoma recognized by ancient Greece, belongs to ornamental flowers have never been used in beauty care products. Using its unique technologies, the TSC research institute has from them, refined and obtained beautiful new elements with anti-aging and wrinkle-reducing effects. In addition to verifying its efficacy, its active ingredients are identified, and raw materials and product quality can be controlled.
A total of 2 patents including the R.O.C. Patent 1564028 and 1568451 have been obtained. Passed PCPC review and registration INCI




Eustoma russellianum, is a species of flowering plant in the gentian family. Its previous binomial name was Eustoma grandiflorum. Common names include Texas bluebellsTexas bluebellbluebellshowy prairie gentianprairie gentian,[1] and Lisianthus.
There is a cultivar, 'Bolero Deep Blue'.[2]
Eustoma russellianum has blue-green waxy leaves and showy bell shaped flowers in blue pink or white each borne singly on an upright plant. Depending on where it grows it may present as an annual, biennial or perennial plant.

In Vitro Activity
Antioxidant



The Eustoma Grandiflorum extract has a free radical scavenging rate of 91.3% at 5 mg / mL. The scavenging effect exhibits dose effect, showing its antioxidant effect.
Anti-Aging and Anti-Wrinkleg



The Eustoma extract has the activity of inhibiting Matrix Metallo Proteinase (MMP-21-9), showing the effects of reducing skin fine lines, slowing skin aging, and facilitating skin wound healing.


Human Activity

1. The extract was evaluated by the 50-person RIPT Sensitive Stimulation Test in AMA Lab, without any discomfort or adverse skin reactions.

2. Commissioned the Department of Medicinal Cosmetics of Taiwan China Medical University to perform human tests on the improvement of various skin indicators of Eustoma extract. After 8 weeks of use, more than 60% of the test people felt better, including 44% increase in skin moisture content, 31% increase in skin elasticity, 27% reduction in skin water loss, and significant improvement the effect more than 57% in wrinkles.


Figure 1. Improvement of various skin indexes by Eustoma extract
3. Example of skin texture improvement: The area of the frame area before use has more yellow area and less lake green area, and the area of the area of the frame area after use is significantly reduced, the green area of the lake area is increased, and the skin is smoother.

4. Examples of skin erythema improvement: The area of redness is darker before use, and the redness is lighter after use. It is believed that the skin erythema is reduced after using the product, which will not cause skin sensitization.



5. Example of skin wrinkle improvement: The purple lines are thicker and thicker in the frame area before the use, and purple lines are thinner and thinner in the area after the use, which shows that the skin wrinkles are reduced after using this product.


6. Example of skin gloss improvement: The skin color is darker before use, and the skin color is brighter after use, which shows that the skin gloss is increased after using this product.
 

 

Centella Asiatica Extract
- Centella Asiatica ( Butylene Glycol ) Extract

INCI Name : Butylene Glycol (and) Centella Asiatica Extract
Trade Name : Centella_TSC

Centella asiatica

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centella_asiatica
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/11954171 https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/substance/395762 https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Brahmic-acid https://www.seppic.com/madecassoside https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/56964357 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapogenin https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saponin
https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sial/43191?lang=en&region=TW


Antioxidant effect is better than 0.50mg/mL Vit.E,
Free Radical Scavenging effect is better than 0.1mg/mL Vit. E.
Whitening effect is better than 0.1 mg/mL Vit. C


  Intracellular Antioxidant Capacity
Each group was treated with 1 mg of extract for half an hour and then treated with H2O2 (100 μg / mL) for 30 minutes. Test if the sample can reduce the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 in Endothelial cells (EAhy926)

 Anti-Inflammatory

The Endothelial cells (EAhy926) was treated with extract for one hour and then treated with TNF-α for 12 hours. The calibrated 1.5 × 106 human monocyte cell line (THP-1) was added to Endothelial cells for 30 minutes, then fluorescence measured at 530nm of emission, excitated at 500nm.


Anti-Inflammatory (Western blot method)

Test adhesion factor performance results (Western blot method)
The Endothelial cells (EAhy926) of each group was treated with 1 mg of extract for one hour, and then treated with TNF-α for 4 hours.
The expression of adhesion factor ICAM-1 was measured by Western blotting method.


 Cytotoxicity Test

1. Cell: Balb / 3T3, CCRC + 13
2. Full media: DMEM with 10% CS
3. Cell assay reagent: Cell Titer® Reagent
4. 490 nm Absorbance

 Centella asiatica, commonly known as Indian pennywortAsiatic pennywort or goyu kola is a herbaceous, frost-tender perennial plant in the flowering plant family Apiaceae.[1] It is native to the wetlands in Asia.[2][3] It is used as a culinary vegetable and as a medicinal herb.[1]

In 
Myanmar cuisine raw pennywort is used as the main constituent in a salad mixed with onions, crushed peanuts, bean powder and seasoned with lime juice and fish sauce. Centella is used as a leafy green in Sri Lankan cuisine, being the predominantly locally available leafy green, where it is called gotu kola. The adjective gotu in Sinhala, is translated as "an inverted conical shape" (like the shape of a colander) and kola as "leaf".
It has a long application history and abundant resources. Modern medical research shows that Centella Asiatica has anti-depression, promotes wound healing, treats scars, anti-tumor, anti-gastric ulcer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant and other physiological functions.
The active ingredients are mainly Saponin and saponin, including Asiaticoside, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, and asiatic acid.


 Inhibition of Matrix Metallo Proteinase MMP-2


The inhibitory effect for MMP-2 is better than 10 μg / mL of A acid, and the extract is beneficial to skin wound healing effect.

Extraction Specifications
Product Name Cerrietle asstarica extract
Product Source: Natural Centella Asiatica extraction and separation, grown by TSC Research Institute.
Blending solven 1,3-butanediol
Recommended Usage 0.5mling / mL)
Appearance brown liquid
Taste Tasteless
pH value 3.7-5 (diluted to 1:200 times with distilled water)
Specific gravity 0.9 ~ 1.0 (to 1:200 times with distilled water)
Index component asiaticoside > 400 mg / L
Heavy metal Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E.coli are not detected
Microorganism Total bacterial count <1000 cfug:
Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E.coli are not detected

Note: The natural extract is a supersaturated solution. After long-term storage, there may be a small amount of precipitation. Storage conditions: cool place at room temperature Best before: 580 days.

 

EGF
- EGF, Sh-oligopeptide -1 (Epidermal Growth Factor EGF)


INCI Name: sh-oligopeptide-5/sh-oligopeptide SP
Trade Name : TSC_EGF


EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor EGF)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidermal_growth_factor https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/#query=EGF%09Sh%20oligopeptide https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCYE1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_protein-coding_genes_1?wprov=srpw1_6

The test result of the activity of recombinant EGF on the skin showed that after three days of treatment with TSC EGF (B), significant blood entered these areas.

Epidermal Growth Factor (Taiwan Sugar Information)
EGF is an innate active ingredient in the human body. It is a small molecule peptide composed of 53 amino acids. It is a small molecule protein that can promote the growth of Epidermal cells.
EGF can stimulate the growth of Epithelial cells and Endothelial cells, promote the metabolism of various skin cells, enhance the absorption of nutrients by cells, and promote the synthesis of collagen and Elastin, It moisturizes the skin, enhances skin elasticity, reduces skin wrinkles and prevents aging.
TSC Research Institute uses advanced technology to produce and purify it, and then analyzes it by SDS-PAGE. At the same time, it confirms the correctness of the sequence by DNA sequencing confirming finished product with a purity of more than 95% can be obtained.
 

 

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a protein that stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR. Human EGF is 6-kDa[5] and has 53 amino acid residues and three intramolecular disulfide bonds.[6]

EGF was originally described as a secreted peptide found in the submaxillary glands of mice and in human urine. EGF has since been found in many human tissues including submandibular gland (submaxillary gland) and parotid gland.[7] Initially, human EGF was known as urogastrone.[8]

Recombinant human epidermal growth factor, sold under the brand name Heberprot-P, is used to treat diabetic foot ulcers. It can be given by injection into the wound site,[17] or may be used topically.[18] Tentative evidence shows improved wound healing.[19] Safety has been poorly studied.[19]
EGF is used to modify synthetic scaffolds for manufacturing of bioengineered grafts by emulsion electrospinning or surface modification methods.
[20][21]



A simplified overview of the general methods used in regenerative medicine.
EGF plays an enhancer role on osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) because it is capable of increasing extracellular matrix mineralization. A low concentration of EGF (10 ng/ml) is sufficient to induce morphological and phenotypic changes. These data suggests that DPSCs in combination with EGF could be an effective stem cell-based therapy to bone tissue engineering applications in periodontics and oral implantology.[22]



Endochondral ossification.



Diagram showing key components of the 
MAPK/ERK pathway. In the diagram, "P" represents phosphate. Note EGF at the very top.

EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. This stimulates ligand-induced dimerization,[12] activating the intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor (see the second diagram). The tyrosine kinase activity, in turn, initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in a variety of biochemical changes within the cell – a rise in intracellular calcium levels, increased glycolysis and protein synthesis, and increases in the expression of certain genes including the gene for EGFR – that ultimately lead to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.[13]

EGF-family / EGF-like domain[edit]

EGF is the founding member of the EGF-family of proteins. Members of this protein family have highly similar structural and functional characteristics. Besides EGF itself other family members include:[14]

·        Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF)

·        transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)

·        Amphiregulin (AR)

·        Epiregulin (EPR)

·        Epigen

·        Betacellulin (BTC)

·        neuregulin-1 (NRG1)

·        neuregulin-2 (NRG2)

·        neuregulin-3 (NRG3)

·        neuregulin-4 (NRG4).

All family members contain one or more repeats of the conserved amino acid sequence:

CX7CX4-5CX10-13CXCX8GXRC

Where C is cysteineG is glycineR is arginine, snd X represents any amino acid.[14]

This sequence contains six cysteine residues that form three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Disulfide bond formation generates three structural loops that are essential for high-affinity binding between members of the EGF-family and their cell-surface receptors.[5]


Gene location (Human)

OGG1
- OGG1- 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase


INCI Name : Have being Applying
Trade Name : TSC_OGG1

Oxoguanine glycosylase
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxoguanine_glycosylase

8-Oxoguanine glycosylase also known as OGG1 is a DNA glycosylase enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the OGG1 gene. It is involved in base excision repair. It is found in bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species.

 

 
 

OGG1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic base byproduct that occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). OGG1 is a bifunctional glycosylase, as it is able to both cleave the glycosidic bond of the mutagenic lesion and cause a strand break in the DNA backbone.

OGG1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic base byproduct that occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). 

Despite the presumed importance of this enzyme, mice lacking Ogg1 have been generated and found to have a normal lifespan,[8] and Ogg1 knockout mice have a higher probability to develop cancer, whereas Mth1 gene disruption concomitantly suppresses lung cancer development in Ogg1-/- mice.[9] Mice lacking Ogg1 have been shown to be prone to increased body weight and obesity, as well as high-fat diet induced insulin resistance.[10] 

Gene location (Human)

8-Oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine8-oxo-Gua, or OH8Gua) is one of the most common DNA lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species [2] modifying guanine, and can result in a mismatched pairing with adenine resulting in G to T and C to A substitutions in the genome.[3] In humans, it is primarily repaired by DNA glycosylase OGG1. It can be caused by ionizing radiation, in connection with oxidative metabolism.
The role of the deoxyriboside form of 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine 
(abbreviated 8-oxo-dG or 8-OHdG) in cancer and aging also applies to 8-oxoguanine. Oxoguanine glycosylase is employed in the removal of 8-oxoguanine from DNA by the process of base excision repair.




8-Oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine, 8-oxo-Gua, or OH8Gua)


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxidessuperoxidehydroxyl radicalsinglet oxygen,[3] and alpha-oxygen.
The reduction of molecular oxygen (O
2) produces superoxide (O2), which is the precursor of most other reactive oxygen species:[4]
In a biological context, ROS are formed as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of 
oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis.[5] However, during times of environmental stress (e.g., UV or heat exposure), ROS levels can increase dramatically.[5] This may result in significant damage to cell structures. Cumulatively, this is known as oxidative stress. The production of ROS is strongly influenced by stress factor responses in plants, these factors that increase ROS production include drought, salinity, chilling, nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity and UV-B radiation. ROS are also generated by exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation.[6]


Major cellular sources of ROS in living non-photosynthetic cells. From a review by Novo and Parola, 2008.[1]

Effects of ROS on cell metabolism are well documented in a variety of species.[2] These include not only roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death) but also positive effects such as the induction of host defence[16][17]genes and mobilization of ion transport systems.[citation needed] This implicates them in control of cellular function. In particular, platelets involved in wound repair and blood homeostasis release ROS to recruit additional platelets to sites of injury. These also provide a link to the adaptive immune system via the recruitment of leukocytes.[citation needed]

Reactive oxygen species are implicated in cellular activity to a variety of inflammatory responses including cardiovascular disease. They may also be involved in hearing impairment via cochlear damage induced by elevated sound levels, in ototoxicity of drugs such as cisplatin, and in congenital deafness in both animals and humans.[citation needed] ROS are also implicated in mediation of apoptosis or programmed cell death and ischaemic injury. Specific examples include stroke and heart attack.[citation needed]

In general, harmful effects of reactive oxygen species on the cell are most often:[18]

1.    damage of DNA or RNA
2.   
oxidations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids (lipid
       peroxidation
)
3.   
oxidations of amino acids in proteins
4.   
oxidative deactivation of specific enzymes by oxidation of co-factors

4 Cause of aging
5 Male infertility
6 Cancer
  6.1 Carcinogenesis
  6.2 Cell proliferation
  6.3 Cell death
  6.4 Tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis
  6.5 Chronic inflammation and cancer
  6.6 Cancer therapy

1. Approaching natural DNA Repair state
This technology product is derived from human enzymes. It is the earliest development of the raw materials for the skin care products belonging to "human" OGG1, which is closer to the natural state of the body. It is one of the few local technology in Taiwan for DNA repair, and has passed In Vitro test with no skin cell toxicity, skin irritation, eye irritation, and no genetic mutations. It has inhibitory effects on TNFα-induced MMP-1 and Cell degranulation, and there are no related INCI registered raw materials for international beauty care products. Our business unit also applied for our INCI international naming last year and is expected to obtain our INCI name in mid of 2020.

DNA repair
The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to the normal functionality of that organism. Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection.[5]
The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Tomas LindahlPaul Modrich, and Aziz Sancar for their work on the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair processes.
[6][7]



DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes.

TNF-alpha Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-9(MMP) Expression
Tumor necrosis factor
(TNFcachexin, or cachectin; once named as tumor necrosis factor alpha or TNFα) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytesNK cellsneutrophilsmast cellseosinophils, and neurons.[5] TNF is a member of the TNF superfamily, consisting of various transmembrane proteins with a homologous TNF domain.
Matrix Metallo Proteinase (MMP)

• 25 types; contains various collagenases
• Responsible for decomposing the extra cellular matrix of the skin.
Excessive decomposition causes wrinkles.
• UV, ozone, smoking, age increase <> MMP rises.
• MMP has a great impact on skin aging.



Available structures.


2. Cell Tests Cell Tests
It can protects cells and reduce DNA damage caused by active oxygen and ultraviolet light.

3. Reduce UV skin lesions
Animal tests show that it can significantly reduce skin lesions caused by ultraviolet light.

Control group animal tumor skin Test group animal tumor skin

OGG1 reduces the severity of UVB-induced skin tumors.

5 Lesions
5.1 Primary lesions
5.2 Secondary lesions
5.3 Configuration
5.4 Distribution
5.5 Other related terms

Skin condition
A skin condition, also known as cutaneous condition, is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.[1] The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment.[2]


Relative incidence of skin cysts.
4. Stabile at RT
RT By special processing technology, the product can be stored at room temperature for at least 2 years without significant decrease in activity. (As shown in the figure below) Operation according to "Standard for Drug Stability Test of Food and Drug Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare".
Stability Test Accelerated Storage Test
Long-term Stability Test of hOG12 powder at Room Temperature Accelerated Storage Test of hOG12 powder

 

 

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