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Global Herbals & Nutraceuticals Products

全球草本和營養品項

Index / Table of Content

Herbal Extracts Acai Berry Extract
Allium Sativum (Garlic)
Aloe Vera Extract
Amla (Emblica Officinalis)
Andrographis Paniculata
Apple Cider
Ashwagandha
Asparagus Racemosus
Azadirachta Indica
Bacopa Monnieri
Boswellia Serrata
Calcium Sennoside 10% To 60%
Cranberry Extract
Caralluma Fimbriata Extract
Cinnamon Bark Extract
Coleus Forskohlii
Commiphora Mukul
Curcumin 95%
Epimedium-Horny Goat Weed (Leaf)
Fenugreek Extract
Garcinia Cambogia
Ginger Extract
Ginkgo Biloba 24, 24/6
Ginseng Extract
Glycyrrhiza (Licorice Extract)
Grape Seed Extract
Griffonia (5 Htp)
Green Coffee Extract
Green Tea Extract
Guggul
Gymnema Sylvestre
Holi Basil Extract
Ivy Leaf Extract
Korean Ginseng
Liquorice Extract
Menthol
Methoxsalen
Moringa Oleifera
Mucuna Pruriens
Nigella Sativa Extract
Omega 3
Papaya Leaf Extract
Psyllium Husk
Podophyllum Resin
Pomegranate Extract
Red Clover Extract
Reserpine
Saw Palmetto
Sesame Seed Extract
Siberian Ginseng Extract
Spirulina
Tribulus Terrestris
Triphala Extract
Yohimbine
Nutraceuticals Astaxanthin
Beta Carotene
Bromelain
Camphor
Capsaicin
Cassia Occidentalis
Centella Asiatica
Chondroitin Sulphate Sodium
Cissus Quadrangularis
Citrus Aurantium
Citrus Bioflavonoids
Coenzyme Q1o
Colchicine
Glucosamine
Sulphate
Ipriflavone
Lutein
Lycopene
Mango Butter
Methoxsalen
Methyl Sulphonyl Methane
Phytosterols
Piperine
Silymarin
Soy Isoflavones
Tetra Hydro Curcuminoids
Zeaxanthin
Probiotics Bacillus Clausii
Bacillus Mesentericus
Bacillus Subtilis
Bifidobacterium Bifidum
Bifidobacterium Infantis
Clostridium Butvricum
Enterococcus Faecium
Lactobacillus Acidophilus
Lactobacillus Casei
Lactobacillus Lactis
Lactobacillus Plantarum
Lactobacillus Reuteri
Lactobacillus Rhamnosus
Lactobacillus Sporogenes (Bacillus Coagulans)
Saccharomyces Boulardii
Streptococcus Faecalis
Streptococcus Thermophilus
Refined/Organic/Virgin Oils Almond
Anethole
Arachis
Asafoetida
Basil
Boswellia
Caraway
Cedar Leaf
Clove Bud
Dill
Eucalyptus
Evening Prime Rose
Fennel
Fenugreek
Fractionated Coconut
Garlic
Grape Seed
Groundnut
Hazelnut
Lemongrass
Linseed
Macadamia
Neem
Nutmeg
Olive
Peach Kernel
Peanut
Peppermint
Rosehip
Rosemary
Safflower
Salmon
Sesame
Spearmint
Soyabean
Squalene
Tea Tree
Terpantine
Thyme
Turpentine
Wheatgerm
Organic Herbs Amla Fruit
Arjuna Bark
Ashwagandha Root
Bahera
Cinnamon
Coriander
Fennel
Fenugreek
Giloy Root
Ginger Root
Gokhru
Gotukola
Harad
Henna Leaves
Kutki Root
Manjistha Root
Moringa Leaves
Mukuna Seed
Mulethi Root
Nagarmotha
Neem
Punarnava Root
Rose Petals
Safed Musli Root
Shatavari Root
Stevia

Summary By Fucntion 

Herbal Extracts Acai Berry Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Açaí_palm

The açaí palm (/əˈs./, Portuguese: [asaˈi] (About this soundlisten), from Nheengatu asai), Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree (Arecaceae) cultivated for its fruit (açaí berries, or simply açaí), hearts of palm (a vegetable), leaves, and trunk wood.

The oil is suitable for cooking or as a salad dressing, but is mainly used in cosmetics as shampoos, soaps or skin moisturizers.

The oil compartments in açaí fruit contain polyphenols such as procyanidin oligomers and vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, and ferulic acid, which were shown to degrade substantially during storage or exposure to heat. Although these compounds are under study for potential health effects, there remains no substantial evidence that açaí polyphenols have any effect in humans. Açaí oil is green in color, has a bland aroma, and is high in oleic and palmitic fatty acids.

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Allium Sativum (Garlic)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Chinese onion. It is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use.A 2016 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found a moderate inverse association between garlic intake and some cancers of the upper digestive tract.Another meta-analysis found decreased rates of stomach cancer associated with garlic intake, but cited confounding factors as limitations for interpreting these studies. Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic. A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption was associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in Korean people.
Aloe Vera Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera

Aloe vera (/ˈæl/ or /ˈæl/) is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe. An evergreen perennial, it originates from the Arabian Peninsula, but grows wild in tropical, semi-tropical, and arid climates around the world. It is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal uses.The species is also used for decorative purposes and grows successfully indoors as a potted plant.

It is found in many consumer products including beverages, skin lotion, cosmetics, ointments or in the form of gel for minor burns and sunburns. There is little clinical evidence for the effectiveness or safety of Aloe vera extract as a cosmetic or medicine.

Amla (Emblica Officinalis)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_emblica

Phyllanthus emblica, also known as emblic, emblic myrobalan, myrobalan,[Indian gooseberry, Malacca tree, or amla from Sanskrit amalaki is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. It has edible fruit, referred to by the same name. These fruits are reputed to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and have bitter taste that may derive from a high density of ellagitannins, such as emblicanin A (37%), emblicanin B (33%), punigluconin (12%), and pedunculagin (14%). Amla also contains punicafolin and phyllanemblinin A, phyllanemblin other polyphenols, such as flavonoids, kaempferol, ellagic acid, and gallic acid 
Andrographis Paniculata
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrographis_paniculata

Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as creat or green chiretta,[2] is an annual herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka. Other common names for the plant include King of Bitter and hempedu bumi (Malay)It is widely cultivated in Southern and Southeastern Asia, where it has been traditionally been believed to be a treatment for bacterial infections and some diseases. Mostly the leaves and roots were used for such purposes. The whole plant is also used in some cases.A 2020 study found that Andrographis permitted chemosensitization of chemosensitive colorectal cancer cells. Two major pathways were altered by the Andrographis. One is the ferroptosis pathway, the other is the β-catenin/Wnt-signaling pathway.

Andrographolide is the major constituent extracted from the leaves of the plant and is a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone. This bitter principle was isolated in pure form by Gorter (1911). Systematic studies on chemistry of A. paniculata have been carried out.

Apple Cider
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_cider

It is the liquid extracted from an apple and all its components, that is then boiled to concentration. The liquid can be extracted from the apple itself, the apple core, the trimmings from apples, or apple culls. It is typically opaque due to fine apple particles in suspension and generally tangier than commercial filtered apple juice, but this depends on the variety of apples used. Cider is typically pasteurized to kill bacteria and extend its shelf life, but untreated cider is common. In either form, apple cider is seasonally produced in autumn.

Many commercially produced ciders are pasteurized which extends their shelf life; the most common method used is pasteurization, but UV irradiation is also employed.

Pasteurization, which partially cooks the juice, results in some change of the sweetness, body and flavor of the cider; irradiation has less noticeable effects.

Impetus for Federal level regulation began with outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 from unpasteurized apple cider and other illnesses caused by contaminated fruit juices in the late 1990s.

Ashwagandha
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Withania_somnifera

Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. Several other species in the genus Withania are morphologically similar. Although thought to be useful as a medicinal herb in Ayurveda, trials supporting its clinical use are limited. However, many in vitro and animal experiments suggest effects on the immune, endocrine, and CNS systems, as well as in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammatory conditions.The main phytochemical constituents are withanolides – which are triterpene lactones – withanolides, withaferin A, alkaloids, steroidal lactones, tropine, and cuscohygrine. Some 40 withanolides, 12 alkaloids, and numerous sitoindosides have been isolated. Withanolides are structurally similar to the ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, leag to a common name for W. somnifera, "Indian ginseng". 
Asparagus Racemosus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asparagus_racemosus

Asparagus racemosus (satavar, shatavari, or shatamull, shatawari) is a species of asparagus common throughout India and the Himalayas.

Asparagamine A, a polycyclic alkaloid was isolated from the dried roots and subsequently synthesized to allow for the construction of analogs.

Steroidal saponins, shatavaroside A, shatavaroside B, filiasparoside C, shatavarins, immunoside, and schidigerasaponin D5 (or asparanin A) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus.

Also known is the isoflavone 8-methoxy-5,6,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.

 
Azadirachta Indica
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azadirachta_indica

Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to the Indian subcontinent. 

Ayurveda was the first to bring the anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral constituents of the neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists. The process of extracting neem oil involves extracting the water-insoluble components with ether, petrol ether, ethyl acetate, and dilute alcohol. The provisional naming was nimbin (sulphur-free crystalline product with melting point at 205 °C, empirical composition C7H10O2), nimbinin (with similar principle, melting at 192 °C), and nimbidin (cream-coloured containing amorphous sulphur, melting at 90–100 °C). Siddiqui identified nimbidin as the main active antibacterial ingredient, and the highest yielding bitter component in the neem oil. These compounds are stable and found in substantial quantities in the neem. They also serve as natural insecticides.

Neem-coated urea is being used an alternate to plain urea fertilizer in India. It reduces pollution, improves fertilizer's efficacy and soil health.

Bacopa Monnieri
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacopa_monnieri

Bacopa monnieri is a perennial, creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America.It is known by the common names water hyssop,waterhyssop, brahmi,thyme-leafed gratiola, herb of grace,and Indian pennywort.The best characterized phytochemicals in Bacopa monnieri are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins known as bacosides, with jujubogenin or pseudo-jujubogenin moieties as aglycone units. Bacosides comprise a family of 12 known analogs. Other saponins called bacopasides I–XII were identified. The alkaloids brahmine, nicotine, and herpestine have been catalogued, along with D-mannitol, apigenin, hersaponin, monnierasides I–III, cucurbitacin and plantainoside B.
Boswellia Serrata
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boswellia_serrata

Boswellia serrata is a plant that produces Indian frankincense. It is also known as Indian oli-banum, Salai guggul, and Sallaki in Sanskrit.

Boswellia serrata contains various derivatives of boswellic acid including β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid.

Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, with the research showing trends of benefit (slight improvement) in pain and function. It has been used in Indian traditional medicine for diabetes.

 
Calcium Sennoside 10% To 60%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senna_glycoside

Senna glycoside, also known as sennoside or senna, is a medication used to treat constipation and empty the large intestine before surgery. The medication is taken by mouth or via the rectum. It typically begins working in minutes when given by rectum and within twelve hours when given by mouth. It is a weaker laxative than bisacodyl or castor oil. 
Cranberry Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cranberry

Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In 2017, the United States, Canada, and Chile accounted for 98% of the world production of cranberries. Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce, jam, and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. 
Caralluma Fimbriata Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caralluma_adscendens

Caralluma adscendens is a succulent plant in the family Apocynaceae. Its distribution ranges from India and Sri Lanka through the Arabian peninsula to North Africa and the Sahel.The key phytochemical constituents of the herb are pregnane glycosides, flavone glycosides, megastigmane glycosides, and saponins. 
The key phytochemical constituents of the herb are pregnane glycosides, flavone glycosides, megastigmane glycosides, and saponins.
Cinnamon Bark Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods. The aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents including eugenol.Reviews of clinical trials reported lowering of fasting plasma glucose and inconsistent effects on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c, an indicator of chronically elevated plasma glucose). Four of the reviews reported a decrease in fasting plasma glucose, only two reported lower HbA1c, and one reported no change to either measure.
Coleus Forskohlii
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleus_barbatus

Coleus barbatus, also known by the synonyms Plectranthus barbatus and incorrectly Coleus forskalaei (and other spellings of this epithet), is a tropical perennial plant related to the typical coleus species. It produces forskolin, an extract useful for pharmaceutical preparations and research in cell biology.

Herbal teas made from Coleus barbatus contain rosmarinic acid and also flavonoid glucuronides and diterpenoids The chemical constituents of Plectranthus barbatus showed activities in vitro, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

Forskolin, which derives its name from the incorrect binomial name Coleus forskohlii, is a constituent of Plectranthus barbatus.

 
Commiphora Mukul
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_wightii

Commiphora wightii, with common names Indian bdellium-tree, gugal] guggul, gugul, or Mukul myrrh tree, is a flowering plant in the family Burseraceae, which produces a fragrant resin called gugal, guggul or gugul, that is used in incense and vedic medicine (or ayurveda).Over a hundred metabolites of various chemical compositions were reported from the leaves, stem, latex, root and fruit samples. High concentrations of quinic acid and myo-inositol were found in fruits and leaves. 
Curcumin 95%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcumin

Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by Curcuma longa plants. It is the principal curcuminoid of turmeric (Curcuma longa), a member of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is sold as an herbal supplement, cosmetics ingredient, food flavoring, and food coloring.

Curcumin incorporates several functional groups whose structure was first identified in 1910. The aromatic ring systems, which are phenols, are connected by two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups. The diketones form stable enols and are readily deprotonated to form enolates; the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group is a good Michael acceptor and undergoes nucleophilic addition.

Curcumin is used as a complexometric indicator for boron. It reacts with boric acid to form a red-colored compound, rosocyanine.

 
Epimedium-Horny Goat Weed (Leaf)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epimedium

Epimedium, also known as barrenwort, bishop's hat, fairy wings, horny goat weed, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Berberidaceae. The majority of the species are endemic to China, with smaller numbers elsewhere in Asia, and a few in the Mediterranean region.

Epimedium species are deciduous or evergreen hardy perennials. The majority have four-parted "spider-like" flowers in spring.

The species used as a dietary supplement is Epimedium grandiflorum. It contains icariin, which is a weak PDE5 inhibitor in vitro. Its clinical effects are unknown.

Epimedium wushanense contains a number of flavanoids. 37 compounds were characterized from the underground and aerial parts of the plant. Among them, 28 compounds were prenylflavonoids. The predominant flavonoid, epimedin C, ranged from 1.4 to 5.1% in aerial parts and 1.0 to 2.8% in underground parts.

Fenugreek Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenugreek

Fenugreek (/ˈfɛnjʊɡrk/; Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop. Its seeds and leaves are common ingredients in dishes from the Indian subcontinent. Also used in traditional medicine, fenugreek can increase the risk for serious medical side effects, though its culinary use (in smaller quantities) is usually believed to be safe. Fenugreek is not approved or recommended for clinical use by any governmental health agency. 
Garcinia Cambogia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garcinia_gummi-gutta

Garcinia gummi-gutta is a tropical species of Garcinia native to Indonesia. Although few high-quality studies have been done to define the composition of the fruit, its phytochemical content includes hydroxycitric acid which is extractable and developed as a dietary supplement. Other compounds identified in the fruit include the polyphenolsluteolin, and kaempferol. 
Ginger Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginger

inger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine.

The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile oils that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of zingerone, shogaols, and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma. Shogaols are more pungent and have higher antioxidant activity but not found in raw ginger, but is formed from gingerols during heating, storage or via acidity.

Fresh ginger also contains an enzyme zingibain which is a cysteine protease and has similar properties to rennet.

 
Ginkgo Biloba 24, 24/6
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginkgo_biloba

 
Ginseng Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginseng

Ginseng (/ˈɪnsɛŋ/) is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.Ginseng may be included in energy drinks or herbal teas in small amounts or sold as a dietary supplement.
Glycyrrhiza (Licorice Extract)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquorice

Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) (/ˈlɪkərɪʃ, -ɪs/ LIK-ər-is(h)) is the common name of Glycyrrhiza glabra, a flowering plant of the bean family Fabaceae, from the root of which a sweet, aromatic flavouring can be extracted.

Liquorice is used as a flavouring in candies and tobacco, particularly in some European and West Asian countries.

Liquorice extracts have been used in herbalism and traditional medicine.

The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer.

The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are phytoestrogens.

 
Grape Seed Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grape#Seed_constituents

A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, grape juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.

Winemaking from red and white grape flesh and skins produces substantial quantities of organic residues, collectively called pomace (also "marc"), which includes crushed skins, seeds, stems, and leaves generally used as compost. Grape pomace – some 10-30% of the total mass of grapes crushed – contains various phytochemicals, such as unfermented sugars, alcohol, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and numerous other compounds, some of which are harvested and extracted for commercial applications (a process sometimes called "valorization" of the pomace). 
Griffonia (5 Htp)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-Hydroxytryptophan

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Though 5-HTP is found in food only in insignificant quantities, it is a chemical involved intermediately in the metabolism of tryptophan, an amino acid found in all unfractionated foods, with lower total amino acid content correlating with increased tryptophan absorption.

The seeds of the Griffonia simplicifolia, a climbing shrub native to West Africa and Central Africa, are used as an herbal supplement for their 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) content

Green Coffee Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_coffee_extract

Green coffee extract is an extract of unroasted, green coffee beans. It is used in the Swiss Water Process for decaffeinating coffee. It has also been used as a weight-loss supplement and as an ingredient in other weight-loss products but its efficacy and mechanism of action have been controversial.Nonvolatile and volatile compounds in green coffee beans, such as caffeine, deter many insects and animals from eating them. Further, both nonvolatile and volatile compounds contribute to the flavor of the coffee bean when it is roasted. Nonvolatile nitrogenous compounds (including alkaloids, trigonelline, proteins, and free amino acids) and carbohydrates are of major importance in producing the full aroma of roasted coffee and for its biological action. Since the mid 2000s, green coffee extract has been sold as a nutritional supplement and has been clinically studied for its chlorogenic acid content and for its lipolytic and weight-loss properties. 
Green Tea Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_tea#Extracts

Polyphenols found in green tea include epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate, epicatechins and flavanols, which are under laboratory research for their potential effects in vivo. Other components include three kinds of flavonoids, known as kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. Although the mean content of flavonoids and catechins in a cup of green tea is higher than that in the same volume of other food and drink items that are traditionally considered to promote health, flavonoids and catechins have no proven biological effect in humans. 
Guggul
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_wightii

Commiphora wightii, with common names Indian bdellium-tree, gugal, guggul, gugul, or Mukul myrrh tree, is a flowering plant in the family Burseraceae, which produces a fragrant resin called gugal, guggul or gugul, that is used in incense and vedic medicine (or ayurveda). Over a hundred metabolites of various chemical compositions were reported from the leaves, stem, latex, root and fruit samples. High concentrations of quinic acid and myo-inositol were found in fruits and leaves.
Gymnema Sylvestre
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnema_sylvestre

Gymnema sylvestre is a perennial woody vine native to tropical Asia, China, the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, and Australia. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicine. Common names include gymnema, Australian cowplant, and Periploca of the woods, and the Hindi term gurmar, which means "sugar destroyer".

The leaves and extracts contain gymnemic acids, the major bioactive constituents that interact with taste receptors on the tongue to temporarily suppress the taste of sweetness.

Holi Basil Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocimum_tenuiflorum

Ocimum tenuiflorum (synonym Ocimum sanctum), commonly known as holy basil or tulsi, is an aromatic perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics.

Some of the phytochemical constituents of tulsi are oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, eugenol, carvacrol, linalool, and β-caryophyllene (about 8%). Tulsi essential oil consists mostly of eugenol (~70%) β-elemene (~11.0%), β-caryophyllene (~8%), and germacrene (~2%), with the balance being made up of various trace compounds, mostly terpenes.

 
Ivy Leaf Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glechoma_hederacea

Glechoma hederacea (syn. Nepeta glechoma Benth., Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trevir.) is an aromatic, perennial, evergreen creeper of the mint family Lamiaceae. It is commonly known as ground-ivy, gill-over-the-ground, creeping charlie, alehoof, tunhoof, catsfoot, field balm, and run-away-robin. It is also sometimes known as creeping jenny, but that name more commonly refers to Lysimachia nummularia. It is used as a salad green in many countries. European settlers carried it around the world, and it has become a well-established introduced and naturalized plant in a wide variety of localities.

It is considered an aggressive invasive weed of woodlands and lawns in some parts of North America. In the absence of any biological control research conducted by the USDA herbicides are relied upon, despite their drawbacks, particularly for woodland ecosystems. The plant's extensive root system makes it difficult to eradicate by hand-pulling.

Korean Ginseng
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panax_ginseng

Panax ginseng, the ginseng, also known as Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, or Korean ginseng, is a species of plant whose root is the original source of ginseng. It is a perennial plant that grows in the mountains of East Asia. 
Liquorice Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquorice

Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) (/ˈlɪkərɪʃ, -ɪs/ LIK-ər-is(h)) is the common name of Glycyrrhiza glabra, a flowering plant of the bean family Fabaceae, from the root of which a sweet, aromatic flavouring can be extracted.

 Liquorice is used as a flavouring in candies and tobacco, particularly in some European and West Asian countries.

Liquorice extracts have been used in herbalism and traditional medicine.

The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer.

The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are phytoestrogens.

Menthol
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menthol

Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from the oils of corn mint, peppermint, or other mints. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above.

The main form of menthol occurring in nature is (−)-menthol, which is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist.

In 2017, it was the 193rd most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than two million prescriptions.

Methoxsalen
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methoxsalen

Methoxsalen (also called xanthotoxin), sold under the brand name Oxsoralen among others, is a drug used to treat psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and some cutaneous lymphomas in conjunction with exposing the skin to UVA light from lamps or sunlight. Methoxsalen modifies the way skin cells receive the UVA radiation, allegedly clearing up the disease. In 1970, Nielsen extracted 8-methoxypsoralen from four species of the genus Heracleum in the carrot family Apiaceae, including Heracleum mantegazzianum and Heracleum sphondylium. An additional 32 species of the genus Heracleum were found to contain 5-methoxypsoralen (bergapten) or other furanocoumarins.
Moringa Oleifera
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa_oleifera

Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree of the family Moringaceae, native to the Indian subcontinent.It is widely cultivated for its young seed pods and leaves used as vegetables and for traditional herbal medicine. It is also used for water purification.
Mucuna Pruriens
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucuna_pruriens

Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated. Its English common names include monkey tamarind, velvet bean, Bengal velvet bean, Florida velvet bean, Mauritius velvet bean, Yokohama velvet bean, cowage, cowitch, lacuna bean, and Lyon bean. The plant is notorious for the extreme itchiness it produces on contact, particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods. It has agricultural and horticultural value and is used in herbalism.
Nigella Sativa Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigella_sativa

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration classifies Nigella sativa L. (black cumin, black caraway) as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as a spice, natural seasoning, or flavoring.Oils are 32% to 40% of the total composition of N. sativa seeds. N. sativa oil contains linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and trans-anethole, and other minor constituents, such as nigellicine, nigellidine, nigellimine, and nigellimine N-oxide. Aromatics include thymoquinone, dihydrothymoquinone, p-cymene, carvacrol, α-thujene, thymol, α-pinene, β-pinene and trans-anethole. Protein and various alkaloids are present in the seeds. 
Omega 3
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid

Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), found in plant oils, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both commonly found in marine oils.
Papaya Leaf Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papaya

The papaya (/pəˈpə/, US: /pəˈpɑːjə/) (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, (/pəˈpɔː/) or pawpaw (/ˈpɔːpɔː/ is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.

Papaya skin, pulp, and seeds contain a variety of phytochemicals, including carotenoids and polyphenols,as well as benzyl isothiocyanates and benzyl glucosinates, with skin and pulp levels that increase during ripening. Papaya seeds also contain the cyanogenic substance prunasin.

In traditional medicine, papaya leaves have been used as a treatment for malaria, an abortifacient, a purgative, or smoked to relieve asthma.

Psyllium Husk
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psyllium

Psyllium /ˈsɪliəm/, or ispaghula (isabgol) /ˌɪspəˈɡlə/, is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage. Psyllium is mainly used as a dietary fiber to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea, and occasionally as a food thickener. It is commonly used as a food ingredient in manufactured breakfast cereals which may contribute to a healthy lifestyle by improving blood cholesterol levels and gastrointestinal function.Psyllium is produced mainly for its mucilage content. The term mucilage describes a group of clear, colorless, gelling agents derived from plants. The mucilage obtained from psyllium comes from the seed coat. Mucilage is obtained by mechanical milling (i.e. grinding) of the outer layer of the seed. Mucilage yield amounts to about 25% (by weight) of the total seed yield. Plantago-seed mucilage is often referred to as husk, or psyllium husk. The milled seed mucilage is a white fibrous material that is hydrophilic, meaning that its molecular structure causes it to attract and bind to water. Upon absorbing water, the clear, colorless, mucilaginous gel that forms increases in volume by tenfold or more.
Podophyllum Resin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podophyllum_resin

Podophyllum resin, also known as podophyllum or podophyllin, is a resin made from the roots of the American mandrake. It is used as a medication to treat genital warts and plantar warts, including in people with HIV/AIDS.It is not recommended in HPV infections without external warts. Application by a healthcare provider to the skin is recommended.
Podophyllin resin has been used to treat warts since at least 1820. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system
.
Pomegranate Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomegranate

The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideae, that grows between 5 and 10 m (16 and 33 ft) tall

Pomegranate peel contains high amount of polyphenols, condensed tannins, catechins, and prodelphinidins.The higher phenolic content of the peel yields extracts for use in dietary supplements and food preservatives.

Pomegranate seed oil contains punicic acid (65%), palmitic acid (5%), stearic acid (2%), oleic acid (6%), and linoleic acid (7%)

Red Clover Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trifolium_pratense

Trifolium pratense, the red clover, is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia, and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions.

It is widely grown as a fodder crop, valued for its nitrogen fixation, which increases soil fertility. For these reasons, it is used as a green manure crop. Several cultivar groups have been selected for agricultural use, mostly derived from T. pratense var. sativum. It has become naturalised in many temperate areas, including the Americas and Australasia as an escape from cultivation.

Due to its beauty, it is used as an ornamental plant.

Red clover's flowers and leaves are edible, and can be added as garnishes to any dish. They can be ground into a flour.

 
Reserpine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserpine

Reserpine is a drug that is used for the treatment of high blood pressure, usually in combination with a thiazide diuretic or vasodilator.

Reserpine irreversibly blocks the H+-coupled vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and VMAT2. VMAT1 is mostly expressed in neuroendocrine cells. VMAT2 is mostly expressed in neurons. Thus, it is the blockade of neuronal VMAT2 by reserpine that inhibits uptake and reduces stores of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and histamine in the synaptic vesicles of neurons. VMAT2 normally transports free intracellular norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in the presynaptic nerve terminal into presynaptic vesicles for subsequent release into the synaptic cleft ("exocytosis"). Unprotected neurotransmitters are metabolized by MAO (as well as by COMT), attached to the outer membrane of the mitochondria in the cytosol of the axon terminals, and consequently never excite the post-synaptic cell. Thus, reserpine increases removal of monoamine neurotransmitters from neurons, decreasing the size of the neurotransmitter pools, and thereby decreasing the amplitude of neurotransmitter release.

It may take the body days to weeks to replenish the depleted VMATs, so reserpine's effects are long-lasting.Reserpine inhibits formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits the metabolic activity of bacteria present in biofilms.

Saw Palmetto
ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serenoa

Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) — also called prostate gland enlargement — is a common condition in elderly men, with an enlarged prostate causing lower urinary tract symptoms, such as inhibiting urine flow from the bladder. BPH may be associated with other urinary tract, bladder or kidney disorders.

Saw palmetto extract has been studied as a possible treatment for people with prostate cancer and for men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH.

Sesame Seed Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesame

Sesame (/ˈsɛzəm/ or /ˈsɛsəm/; Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.[2] Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods. World production in 2016 was 6.1 million tonnes, with Tanzania, Myanmar, India, and Sudan as the largest producers.

A meta-analysis showed that sesame consumption produced small reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Sesame oil studies reported a reduction of oxidative stress markers and lipid peroxidation.

Sesame seeds contain the lignans sesamolin, sesamin, pinoresinol, and lariciresinol.

Siberian Ginseng Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus_senticosus

Eleutherococcus senticosus is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia.Root extracts of E. senticosus are sold as a dietary supplement or cosmetic, usually under the name Siberian ginseng.

Roots of E. senticosus are cylindrical, up to 0.5 centimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, straight or branched, dark brown, and have a smooth surface with bark fixed closely to the xylem. The derived extract from the roots has been characterized for its major constituents, including lignans, sesamin (eleutheroside B4), syringaresinol, phenylpropanes, coumarins, beta-sitosterol and daucosterol.

Berries from E. senticosus contain diverse polyphenols, including caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and benzoic acid, with significant content of calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

Major constituents of essential oil from leaves of Eleutherococcus senticosus include α-bisabolol (26%), β-caryophyllene (7%), germacrene D (7%), β-bisabolene (5%), and α-humulene (4%).

Spirulina
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirulina_(dietary_supplement)

Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and animals. The three species are Arthrospira platensis, A. fusiformis, and A. maxima.

Cultivated worldwide, Arthrospira is used as a dietary supplement or whole food. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium, and poultry industries.As an ecologically sound, nutrient-rich dietary supplement, spirulina is being investigated to address food security and malnutrition, and as dietary support in long-term space flight or Mars missions.Its advantage for food security is that it needs less land and water than livestock to produce protein and energy.

Tribulus Terrestris
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribulus_terrestris

Tribulus terrestris is an annual plant in the caltrop family (Zygophyllaceae) widely distributed around the world. It is adapted to grow in dry climate locations in which few other plants can survive. It is native to warm temperate and tropical regions in southern Eurasia and Africa. It has been unintentionally introduced to North America and Australia. An aggressive and hardy invasive species, T. terrestris is widely known as a noxious weed because of its small woody fruit – the bur – having long sharp and strong spines which easily penetrate surfaces such as the bare feet or thin shoes of crop workers and other pedestrians, the rubber of bicycle tires, and the mouths and skin of grazing animals.

The phytochemistry of T. terrestris samples collected from various parts of the world differs significantly. Among the steroidal saponins present in this herb, furostanol saponins are isolated only from T. terrestris of Bulgarian origin. One of the main chemical compounds found in T. terrestris is protodioscin.

Two alkaloids that seem to cause limb paresis (staggers) in sheep that eat Tribulus terrestulis are the beta-carboline alkaloids harman (harmane) and norharman (norharmane). The alkaloid content of dried foliage is about 44 mg/kg.

Triphala Extract
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triphala

Triphala ("three fruits") is an Ayurvedic herbal rasayana formula consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans, taken without seed: Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica), and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula). One report indicates it contains vitamin C.
Yohimbine
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yohimbine

Yohimbine (/jˈhɪmbn/), also known as quebrachine, is an indoloquinolizidine alkaloid derived from the bark of the African tree Pausinystalia johimbe; also from the bark of the unrelated South American tree Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco. Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, and has been used in a variety of research projects. It is a veterinary drug used to reverse sedation in dogs and deer.Yohimbine has high affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor, moderate affinity for the α1 receptor, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, and dopamine D2 receptors, and weak affinity for the 5-HT1E, 5-HT2A, 5-HT5A, 5-HT7, and dopamine D3 receptors. It behaves as an antagonist at α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and dopamine D2, and as a partial agonist at 5-HT1A.[31][33][34][35] Yohimbine interacts with serotonin and dopamine receptors in high concentrations.
Nutraceuticals Astaxanthin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a blood-red pigment and is produced naturally in the freshwater microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and the yeast fungus Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (also known as Phaffia). When the algae is stressed by lack of nutrients, increased salinity, or excessive sunshine, it creates astaxanthin. Animals who feed on the algae, such as salmon, red trout, red sea bream, flamingos, and crustaceans (i.e. shrimp, krill, crab, lobster, and crayfish), subsequently reflect the red-orange astaxanthin pigmentation to various degrees.The structure of astaxanthin by synthesis was described in 1975. Astaxanthin is not converted to vitamin A in the human body so it is completely nontoxic if given orally.Astaxanthin can also be used as a dietary supplement intended for human, animal, and aquaculture consumption. Astaxanthin is used as a dietary supplement and feed supplement as food colorant for salmon, crabs, shrimp, chickens and egg production.

Beta Carotene
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-Carotene

β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in fungi,[5] plants, and fruits. It is a member of the carotenes, which are terpenoids (isoprenoids), synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units and thus having 40 carbons. Among the carotenes, β-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. β-Carotene is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.Plant carotenoids are the primary dietary source of provitamin A worldwide, with β-carotene as the best-known provitamin A carotenoid. Others include α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoid absorption is restricted to the duodenum of the small intestine and dependent on class B scavenger receptor (SR-B1) membrane protein, which is also responsible for the absorption of vitamin E (α-tocopherol).
Bromelain
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromelain

Bromelain is an enzyme extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh pineapple. The extract has a history of folk medicine use. As an ingredient, it is used in cosmetics, as a topical medication, and as a meat tenderizer.The term "bromelain" may refer to either of two protease enzymes extracted from the plants of the family Bromeliaceae, or it may refer to a combination of those enzymes along with other compounds produced in an extract. Bromelain enzymes are called fruit bromelain and stem bromelain.though tested in a variety of folk medicine and research models for its possible efficacy against diseases, the only approved clinical application for bromelain was issued in 2012 by the European Medicines Agency for a topical medication called NexoBrid used to remove dead tissue in severe skin burns.

Camphor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camphor

Camphor (/ˈkæmfər/) is a waxy, flammable, transparent solid with a strong aroma. It is a terpenoid with the chemical formula C10H16O. It is found in the wood of the camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), a large evergreen tree found in East Asia, also of the unrelated kapur tree (Dryobalanops sp.), a tall timber tree from South East Asia. It also occurs in some other related trees in the laurel family, notably Ocotea usambarensis. Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain 0.05 to 0.5% camphor, while camphorweed (Heterotheca) contains some 5%. A major source of camphor in Asia is camphor basil (the parent of African blue basil). Camphor can also be synthetically produced from oil of turpentine.The molecule has two possible enantiomers as shown in the structural diagrams. The structure on the left is the naturally occurring (+)-camphor ((1R,4R)-bornan-2-one), while its mirror image shown on the right is the (−)-camphor ((1S,4S)-bornan-2-one).It is used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly in India), as an embalming fluid, for medicinal purposes, and in religious ceremonies.

Capsaicin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsaicin

Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is a chemical irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as secondary metabolitby chili peppers, probably as deterrents against certain mammals and fungi. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, highly pungent,[2] crystalline to waxy solid compound.The burning and painful sensations associated with capsaicin result from its chemical interaction with sensory neurons. Capsaicin, as a member of the vanilloid family, binds to a receptor called the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1). First cloned in 1997, TRPV1 is an ion channel-type receptor. TRPV1, which can also be stimulated with heat, protons and physical abrasion, permits cations to pass through the cell membrane when activated. The resulting depolarization of the neuron stimulates it to signal the brain. By binding to the TRPV1 receptor, the capsaicin molecule produces similar sensations to those of excessive heat or abrasive damage, explaining why the spiciness of capsaicin is described as a burning sensation.
Cassia Occidentalis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senna_occidentalis

Senna occidentalis is a pantropical plant species.

Vernacular names include ʻauʻaukoʻi in Hawaii, septicweed, coffee senna,coffeeweed, Mogdad coffee, negro-coffee, senna coffee, Stephanie coffee, stinkingweed or styptic weed.The plant is locally called Bana Chakunda in Odisha, India.The species was formerly placed in the genus Cassia.The plant is reported to be poisonous to cattle. The plant contains anthraquinones. The roots contain emodin and the seeds contain chrysarobin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9-anthrone) and N-methylmorpholine.Mogdad coffee seeds can be roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. They have also been used as an adulterant for coffee. There is apparently no caffeine in mogdad coffee.Despite the claims of being poisonous, the leaves of this plant, Dhiguthiyara in the Maldivian language, have been used in the diet of the Maldives for centuries in dishes such as mas huni and also as a medicinal plant.z This plant is mainly used for the treatment of bone fractures and bone dislocation as an herbal treatment in India.

Centella Asiatica
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centella_asiatica

Centella asiatica, commonly known as Indian pennywort or Asiatic pennywort, is a herbaceous, perennial plant in the flowering plant family Apiaceae. It is native to the wetlands in Asia. It is used as a culinary vegetable and as a medicinal herb.Centella contains pentacyclic triterpenoids, including asiaticoside, brahmoside, asiuyatic acid, and brahmic acid (madecassic acid). Other constituents include centellose, centelloside, and madecassoside.In the context of phytoremediation, C. asiatica is a potential phytoextraction tool owing to its ability to take up and translocate metals from root to shoot when grown in soils contaminated by heavy metals.
Chondroitin Sulphate Sodium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondroitin_sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis.The effect of chondroitin sulfate in people with osteoarthritis is likely the result of a number of reactions including its anti-inflammatory activity, the stimulation of the synthesis of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, and the decrease in catabolic activity of chondrocytes, inhibiting the synthesis of proteolytic enzymes, nitric oxide, and other substances that contribute to damage the cartilage matrix and cause death of articular chondrocytes. 
Cissus Quadrangularis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cissus_quadrangularis

Cissus quadrangularis
 is a perennial plant of the grape family. It is commonly known as veldt grape, devil's backbone, adamant creeper, asthisamharaka, hadjod and pirandai. The species is native to tropical Asia, Arabia and much of Africa.Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity.[citation needed] Cissus has been used in various Ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons.C. quadrangularis has been found to contain carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The plant also produces the resveratrol dimer quadrangularin A.
Citrus Aurantium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitter_orange

Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange is the citrus tree Citrus × aurantium and its fruit.

Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, and are found in perfume, used as a flavoring or as a solvent, and also for consumption. The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade and also used to make French bigarade.

Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant, due to its active ingredient, synephrine.

 
Citrus Bioflavonoids
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavonoid

Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus, meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants, and thus commonly consumed in diets. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and a heterocyclic ring (C).

Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants, fulfilling many functions.  Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration, producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals. In higher plants, flavonoids are involved in UV filtration, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and floral pigmentation. They may also act as chemical messengers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors. 
Coenzyme Q1o
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_Q10

Coenzyme Q, also known as ubiquinone, is a coenzyme family that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). In hu