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Human development(humanity)

Human development is a concept within the field of international development. It involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach. The inequality adjusted Human Development Index is used as a way of measuring actual progress in human development by the United Nations. It is an alternative approach to a single focus on economic growth, and focused more on social justice, as a way of understanding progress.

The United Nations Development Programme has defined Human Development as "the process of enlarging people's choices", said choices allowing them to "lead a long and healthy life, to be educated, to enjoy a decent standard of living", as well as "political freedom, other guaranteed human rights and various ingredients of self-respect".[1]


Development concerns expanding the choices people have, to lead lives that they value, and improving the human condition so that people have the chance to lead full lives.[2] Thus, human development is about much more than economic growth, which is only a means of enlarging people’s choices.[3] Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life. Capabilities are "the substantive freedoms [a person] enjoys to lead the kind of life [they have] reason to value".[4] Human development disperses the concentration of the distribution of goods and services that underprivileged people need and center its ideas on human decisions.[5] By investing in people, we enable growth and empower people to pursue many different life paths, thus developing human capabilities.[6] The most basic capabilities for human development are: to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable (i.e., educated), to have access to resources and social services needed for a decent standard of living, and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these,
many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.

An abstract illustration of human capability is a bicycle. A bicycle itself is a resource- a mode of transportation. If the person who owns the bicycle is unable to ride it (due to a lack of balance or knowledge), the bicycle is useless to that person as transportation and loses its functioning. If, however, a person both owns a bicycle and has the ability to ride a bicycle, they now have the capability of riding to a friend's house, a local store, or a great number of other places. This capability would (presumably) increase their value of life and expand their choices. A person, therefore, needs both resources and the ability to use them to pursue their capabilities. This is one example of how different resources or skills can contribute to human capability. This way of looking at development, often forgotten in the immediate concern with accumulating commodities and financial wealth, is not new.

Virtuous circle and vicious circle


The terms virtuous circle and vicious circle (also referred to as virtuous cycle and vicious cycle) refer to complex chains of events which reinforce themselves through a feedback loop.[1] A virtuous circle has favorable results, while a vicious circle has detrimental results.
Both circles are complexes of events with no tendency towards equilibrium (social, economic, ecological, etc.) - at least in the short run. Both systems of events have feedback loops in which each iteration of the cycle reinforces the previous one (positive feedback). These cycles will continue in the direction of their momentum until an external factor intervenes and breaks the cycle.
A well-known example of a vicious circle in economics is hyperinflation.
Vicious circles in the subprime mortgage crisis

The contemporary subprime mortgage crisis is a complex of vicious circles, both in its genesis and in its manifold outcomes, most notably the late 2000s recession. A specific example is the circle related to housing. As housing prices decline, more homeowners go "underwater", when the market value of a home drops below the mortgage on it. This provides an incentive to walk away from the home, increasing defaults and foreclosures. This, in turn, lowers housing values further from over-supply, reinforcing the cycle.[2]

The foreclosures reduce the cash flowing into banks and the value of mortgage-backed securities (MBS) widely held by banks. Banks incur losses and require additional funds, also called “recapitalization”. If banks are not capitalized sufficiently to lend, economic activity slows and unemployment increases, which further increase the number of foreclosures.

Economist Nouriel Roubini described the vicious circles within and across the housing market and financial markets during interviews with Charlie Rose in September and October 2008.[3][4][5]

Vicious cycles in the subprime mortgage crisis
Other examples include the poverty cycle, sharecropping, and the intensification of drought.

Smart growth

HyperLink Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl. It also advocates compact, transit-oriented, walkable, bicycle-friendly land use, including neighborhood schools, complete streets, and mixed-use development with a range of housing choices.[1] The term 'smart growth' is particularly used in North America. In Europe and particularly the UK, the terms 'Compact City' or 'urban intensification' have often been used to describe similar concepts, which have influenced government planning policies in the UK, the Netherlands and several other European countries.

Smart growth values long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over a short-term focus. Its sustainable development goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place; expand the range of transportation, employment, and housing choices; equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development; preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources; and promote public health.


Basic concept
Smart growth is related to, or may be used in combination with the following concepts:

The smart growth approach to development is multifaceted and can encompass a variety of techniques. For example, in the state of Massachusetts smart growth is enacted by a combination of techniques including increasing housing density along transit nodes, conserving farm land, and mixing residential and commercial use areas.
[4] Perhaps the most descriptive term to characterize this concept is Traditional Neighborhood Development, which recognizes that smart growth and related concepts are not necessarily new, but are a response to car culture and sprawl. Many favor the term New Urbanism, which invokes a new, but traditional way of looking at urban planning.

There are a range of best practices associated with smart growth, these include: supporting existing communities, redeveloping underutilized sites, enhancing economic competitiveness, providing more transportation choices, developing livability measures and tools, promoting equitable and affordable housing, providing a vision for sustainable growth, enhancing integrated planning and investment, aligning, coordinating, and leveraging government polices, redefining housing affordability and making the development process transparent.[5]

Related, but somewhat different, are the overarching goals of smart growth, and they include: making the community more competitive for new businesses, providing alternative places to shop, work, and play, creating a better "Sense of Place," providing jobs for residents, increasing property values, improving quality of life, expanding the tax base, preserving open space, controlling growth, and improving safety.[6]



Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).[1]Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering , biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.

For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.[2] The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciencessuch as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.[2]



Although not normally what first comes to mind, many forms of human-derived agriculture clearly fit the broad definition of "'utilizing a biotechnological system to make products". Indeed, the cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise.

Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. Through early biotechnology, the earliest farmers selected and bred the best suited crops, having the highest yields, to produce enough food to support a growing population. As crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain, it was discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilize, restore nitrogen, and control pests. Throughout the history of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants — one of the first forms of biotechnology.

Brewing was an early application of biotechnology


Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

A rose
 plant that began as cells grown in a tissue culture

A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology ; for example:

  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization as well as analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale."[16] Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.
  • Blue biotechnology is a term that has been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.
  • Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genetic manipulation.
  • White biotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Another example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.[citation needed]

The investment and economic output of all of these types of applied biotechnologies is termed as "bioeconomy".

Bioeconomy in everyday life

HyperLink Whether for food, clothing or consumer goods, in the kitchen or in the garage – many everyday products contain components made from renewable raw materials or are produced using biobased procedures. The bioeconomy has thus made its way into everyone's lives, even though we’re not usually aware of it.

According to experts, bioeconomy is “… the knowledge-based production and use of renewable resources to make products, processes and services available for various economic sectors.”

For this reason, the bioeconomy makes an important contribution by linking economic growth with environmental sustainability. In view of depleting fossil-based resources, climate change and a growing world population, sustainable resource-efficient strategies are in demand to guarantee the well-being of modern societies. Which is why the bioeconomy is of central importance in all economic sectors.


Bio-Community(Global & Local)
List of largest biotechnology & pharmaceutical companies

描述: United States Johnson & Johnson[P]

描述: Switzerland Roche[P]

描述: United States Pfizer[P]

描述: Switzerland Novartis[P]

描述: United States Merck & Co.[P]

描述: United States AmgenB

描述: France Sanofi[P]

描述: United States AbbVie[P]

描述: Denmark Novo Nordisk[P]

描述: Germany BayerB

描述: United KingdomGlaxoSmithKline[P]

描述: United States CelgeneB

描述: United States Gilead SciencesB

描述: United States Bristol-Myers Squibb[P]

描述: United States Eli Lilly & Co[P]

描述: United Kingdom AstraZeneca[P]

描述: United States Abbott Laboratories[P] NYSEABT

描述: Republic of Ireland Allergan[P]

描述: United States Biogen[P]

描述: United States Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc[P]

描述: United States Stryker Corporation[P]

描述: United States Shire Pharmaceuticals[P]

  描述: Israel Teva Pharmaceutical[P]

描述: United States Vertex Pharmaceuticals[P]

描述: United States Zoetis[P]

Graphical representation:

List of largest pharmaceutical companies by revenue

2016 Biotechnology Industry in Taiwan(White Paper)
2017 Introduction to Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries in Taiwan
2017 Introduction to Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries in Taiwan, Republic of China Introduction to Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries in Taiwan, Rep. of China.pdf
2017 Taiwan White Paper - AmCham Taipei

I. Niche to invest in Taiwan's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry
1. Development environment for Taiwan's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry
2. Overview for Taiwan's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry.

II. Infrastructure for Taiwan's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry
1. Research and Development
2. Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Investments
3. Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Talents
4. Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Incubation
5. Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Cluster

III. Institutions to assist in investing Taiwan's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry
1. Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical Industries Promotion Office, MOEA (BPIPO)
2. The Executive Yuan's One-Stop-Service Office for Biotechnology Industry

IV. Related measures for investment incentives and loans
1. Investment incentives
2. Low-interest loans
3. Government fund injection
4. Publicly traded recommended

V. Outlook
Appendix 1: Industry Regulations
Appendix 2: Track of promoting Taiwan's biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry
Appendix 3: Domestic and Overseas Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Related Service Agencies

Biotech Industry in Taiwan



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